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font-size: 14px;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies</span></strong></span><span style="text-align: justify; font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;"><strong>&nbsp;(IJMBS)</strong> is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;"></span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJMBS JOURNAL PUBLISHER en-US International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2589-868X <p>&nbsp;</p> <p class="caption" style="text-align: center;"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" width="60" height="21" border="0"></a>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS)<span style="line-height: 1.3em;">&nbsp;</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">by </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Articles</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;"> is licensed under a </span><a style="line-height: 1.3em;" title="Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">.</span></p> KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES RELATED TO CERVICAL CANCER. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells originating in cervix uteri. It may be completely asymptomatic in early stages.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> A facility based cross sectional study was done 200 women of reproductive age group (15-45 years) who present to out-patient department in gynecology.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; A total of 200 women are approached for interview, in which 182(91.00%) had not heard about cervical cancer, only 9.00% women had knowledge about cervical cancer. About 82.00% women had positive attitude about cervical cancer screening &amp; it’s vaccine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Women need more information about cervical cancer risk factors, symptoms and screening program.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cervical cancer, awareness, screening.</p> Kavita Agarwal Saroj Paliwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.179 A STUDY ON THE LIPID PROFILE OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension and dyslipidemia seem to be the two major risk factors contributing to the increasing cardio-vascular disease worldwide including India.</p> <p>Methods-The present study was carried out on a total of 100 hypertensive patients attending our Hospital and 100 age and sex matched healthy controls. Twelve hour fasting lipid analysis was done for Serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The Mean serum total cholesterol values were highly significant in hypertensive subjects (231.8±34.7 mg/dL) as compared to the healthy control subjects (158.6±12.10 mg/dL). The mean serum TG level was 107.94±16.10 in healthy control subjects, and 214.41±38.10 in hypertensive patients. This difference was highly significant. The mean values for HDL 29.82 ±6.44was mg/dL for hypertensive subjects whereas 43.20±4.41 mg/dl for healthy control subjects, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All the lipid profile like cholesterol, LDL, TG and HDL were derange in the hypertensive than those in the healthy controls.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hypertension, Lipid profile, HDL ,TG , LDL.</p> Pradeep Agarwal Satish Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.180 RAPID DETECTION OF FLUCONAZOLE RESISTANCE IN CANDIDA TROPICALIS BY MALDI-TOF-MS <p>The study of disease transmission and development of antifungal opposition among Candida species, rapid antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is essential for streamlining of antifungal treatment. This investigation was directed to institutionalize a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI - TOF MS) based AFST strategy (ms- AFST) for helplessness of <em>Candida tropicalis</em> detaches. Clinical secludes of <em>C. tropicalis</em> were affirmed for fluconazole obstruction by the CLSI (M27-A3) strategy. The incubation period and medication concentration were advanced to decide the insignificant profile change concentration (MPCC) by MALDI-TOF MS. The information were broke down first by direct visual &nbsp;perception of the spectra pursued by composite connection list (CCI) matrix investigation, &nbsp;virtual gel investigation, and group examination for affirmation. At long last, the connection between's minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and MPCCs was assessed. A sum of 14 fluconazole resistance (MICs extending from 15 to 127μg/ml) and 18 fluconazole subseptible <em>C. &nbsp;tropicalis</em> segregates (MIC ≤1μg/ml) were incorporated into this examination. All <em>C. tropicalis</em> separates had noteworthy otherworldly changes after 4h concentration with fluconazole. Of 33 confines, MPCCs what's more, MICs were equal for 15 disengages, and the MPCC was one weakening lower than the particular MIC in the rest of the 17 secludes. This finding was additionally upheld by visual investigation, CCI framework examination, virtual gel and chief part examination dendrogram investigation. The relationship among's MPCC and MIC was huge (P &lt;.05). In this way, a MALDI-TOF MS based AFST examine might be utilized as a fast screening procedure for fluconazole against in <em>C. tropicalis.</em></p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, composite correlation index, principal component analysis, <em>Candida tropicalis</em>.</p> Shivi Saxena Rupal Sengar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i3.141 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ENVIRONMENT AND SANITATION OF A RURAL POPULATION IN VILLUPURAM DISTRICT - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions and open-air defecation are still major issues in rural households. This study aimed at assessing the internal, external environment and sanitation among a rural population.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional survey was conducted in Kedar village of Villupuram District from June 2018 to July 2018. Around 379 households were assessed regarding environment and sanitation using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Overcrowding was present in 29.1 houses. Twenty percent of the houses were inadequately ventilated. Separate toilet facilities were absent in 14.9% of houses. Mosquito nuisance was present among 29.9% houses and fly nuisance among 30.7% houses. Open drainage system was present among 21.3% houses. Lower socio-economic status was a significant risk factor of inadequate ventilation, absence of separate latrine and over-crowding.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Awareness and health education on the health hazards of poor housing, imparting knowledge on government schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana and Swacch Bharat are needed for those in the lower socio-economic strata for improving environment and sanitation.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Over-crowding, sanitation, open air defecation, Swacch Bharat</p> M C Sriradha Jebamalar J Sasikaladevi S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-05 2019-04-05 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.177 MOTOR IMAGERY TOGETHER WITH CONVENTIONAL THERAPY WILL BE EQUAL TO OR MORE EFFECTIVE THAN CONVENTIONAL ALONE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF GAIT IN STROKE PATIENT <p>Strokes can result in many different disabilities, ranging from motor control and urinary incontinence to depression and memory loss. Stroke usually occurs on only one side of the brain, so decreased motor control (the ability to move muscles in a coordinated manner) usually develops on only one side of the body. Total 30 participants including both male and female who were previously diagnosed by Neurologist was recruited for the study. Subject will be selected as per convenient sampling and assigned into two groups i.e. Group –A (Experimental group) and Group-B (Control Group). In group-A subjects were given motor imagery and conventional therapy both; in group-<strong>B</strong> subjects were given conventional therapy alone. This group received Motor imagery (10-15 minute) &amp; Conventional therapy (30-40 minutes) both and it was given in single session of 45-50 minutes. The program was conducted for 3 times per week. Total duration of both programs was for 4 weeks. For group B Intervention of Conventional therapy alone was given for 30-40 min. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding their age. Group A got 13 subjects with (mean age = 65.46 years ±7.55) and Group B got 13 subjects with (mean age = 65.69 ±5.58). Both programs were conducted in the respective participant’s home and hospital environment. The procedure requires only a stopwatch, two felt tip marking pens with washable ink, and a 16-m (53ft) walkway that is premeasured and marked with masking tape at four points. Initially subjects were introduced with Motor Imagery technique. Statistics are performed by using SPSS 13 and Sigma state. t- Test was used for analysis of data. Paired t-test was applied to compare the data of Gait assessment (stride length, step length, gait velocity and cadence) within group. Student t-test was used to compare the data of gait assessment (stride length, step length, gait velocity and cadence) between groups. The statistical significance was set at 0.05 at 95% confidence interval and P value &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Strokes, Gait assessment, Motor Imagery and Conventional therapy.</p> Dr. Barkha Khurana Dr. Ashish Dobhal Dr. Vishesh Singhal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-05 2019-04-05 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.182 SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS AMONG THE PATHIPARA TRIBAL POPULATION OF WAYANAD, KERALA <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>Tribes are one of the autochthonous people of the country.In India 427 groups are being recognized as Scheduled Tribe (ST). They form approximately 8% of total Indian population forming 104 million according to last census in 2011. The purpose of this study is to identify the socio demographic profile of Pathipara Tribal colony, to identify the customs, social problems and health problems existing in the tribal community and to provide health awareness and education regarding personal hygiene.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim is to identify various social problems existing in the tribal population of Pathipara, Nellipoyil, Wayanad district.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods: </strong>A descriptive study was done to look for various problems. A standardised open ended pre-structured questionnaire was used for the study.</p> <p><strong>Observations: </strong>It was found that illiteracy stands out as an important issue. There is prevalence of communicable diseases like Tuberculosis among adults, Hepatitis B and Scabies among children. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>There is prevalence of malnutrion, anemia, infectious and non communicable diseases among the tribes of Pathipara and the major social problem faced by them is domestic violence under the influence of alcohol.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pathipara, Tribal population, Alcohol addiction, Tobacco addiction</p> Anirudh V. Mutalik Sujesh PK Durgesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.185 BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES 2016. ARE THE HEALTH CARE WORKERS AWARE? – EVALUATION OF AN INTERVENTION. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Biomedical waste has become a crucial health hazard in many countries including India. Careless and indiscriminate disposal of these wastes can contribute to the spread of serious diseases. The new guideline of Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules -2016 was released on March, 2016 and revised in 2018. In order to update the new rules periodically, the present study was carried out with the aim to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on biomedical waste management among health care workers working in a tertiary hospital in Puducherry and to evaluate the effectiveness of sensitisation program regarding 2016 Bio-medical waste management rules.</p> <p><strong>Methods: A</strong>ll staff nurses and nursing assistants working at SVMCH &amp; RC, Puducherry were included. Study period was between August and October 2016. About 103 willing participants were included.The participants were assessed by pre-test and post-test with a semi-structured questionnaire. Dataanalysed using SPSS (version 23).Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare pre-test and post-test score. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were applied to find the significant difference before and after intervention.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>Among total participants (103), 83.5% of the participants were Staff Nurses, 10.7% Female Nursing Assistant and rest Auxiliary Nursing Mid-wife. About 68 % of them have reported that it is the sole responsibility of the Government in proper management of Bio-medical waste and 27.2% of them reported that procedures involved in Bio-Medical Waste Management (BMWM) are increasing the financial burden of their hospital.Regarding identification of the symbol of bio-hazard, there was a significant increase in knowledge in the post-test when compared to the pre-test. About 40.8% (42) of participants had poor knowledge about BMW in pre test. Regarding attitude and practice, in the pre-test, around 59% have said that they will report about any injury due to or during wrong disposal whereas in the post-test it has been increased to 78% which is statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). About 89.3% of the participants reported that they are having the practice of wearing gloves while handling BMW in pre-test whereas in the post-test, 94.2% has reported. Overall mean and standard deviation of pre-test and post-test scores regarding BMW shows a statistically significant improvement in KAP score regarding biomedical waste management and new rules in the post-test after interventionthan the pre-test.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>The knowledge of the participants regarding management of bio-medical waste is still in its childhood stage.There was an evident increase after administration of sensitisation program.</p> Arthi M Surendar R Srikanth S Latha S Radhika . ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.183 ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS AFTER IMPLANT TREATMENT: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY IN A PRIVATE DENTAL PRACTICE <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Clinicians are currently unable to quantify the psychosocial, functional, and esthetic effects of prosthetic interventions to replace teeth. Understanding the effects of treatment to replace teeth on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is important.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives: </strong>This study aimed at analysing the improvement of OHRQoL of patients who underwent dental implant treatment using the “functional”, “psychosocial” and “pain and discomfort” categories of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> These patients were assessed for their OHRQoL by answering a GOHAI questionnaire before implant placement and between 3 to 9 months after treatment. Gender, age, tobacco habits and potential preliminary periodontal treatment were also determined at the beginning of the study. In our study, evaluation process of OHRQol was assessed using the GOHAI questionnaire and data were collected during interviews. GOHAI comprised 12 items. For each one a score between 1 and 5 was given.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 200 subjects, 125 were males and 75 females at a ratio of 1.66 to 1. The mean age was 45±2.9 years. According to the degree of oral treatment needed, the subjects were categorised as “Single Tooth” (n = 95), “Fixed Partial Denture” (n = 85; 2 to 6 teeth replaced) and “Full Prostheses” (n = 20; 10 to 14 replaced teeth). The latter category comprised “full fixed Prostheses” (n = 9) and “Implant Retained Complete Over-denture” (n = 11). The characteristics of this population did not have any statistically significant impact on GOHAIAdd scores before or after treatment. These parameters were also not associated with changes in the OHRQoL of the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>OHRQoL was found to be improved after oral treatment by implants.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Implant, Oral health, Questionnaire Removable Partial Denture, Fixed Partial Denture.</p> MOHAMMED SIRAJ UR REHMAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.193 LIVING WITH DIABETES MELLITUS II: IMPACTS ON NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING DEPRESSION AND QUALITY OF LIFE <p>The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, depression and quality of life among adults with diabetes mellitus-II.&nbsp; The study used a quantitative approach with an experimental, cross sectional matched group research design. The sample was divided into two groups; an experimental group of adults with diabetes mellitus and a control group of matched healthy individuals, with 30 participants in each group.&nbsp; The sample was recruited from Delhi using convenience and snowball sampling. A self designed questionnaire was administered for understanding about diabetes and its management in the experimental group. NIMHANS neuropsychological battery and WAIS- IV (Two subtests only), Beck Depression Inventory and WHOQOL questionnaire was used for examining neuropsychological functioning, depression and quality of life among adults with diabetes mellitus and matched healthy individuals.&nbsp; Participants among adults with diabetes mellitus group were provided a self –designed brochure on the self-management of diabetes. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage etc and inferential statistics like MNOVA and correlations were used for analysis of the data. Results indicated a significant relationship on total neuropsychological functioning between the two groups. Significant differences were found in some components of neuropsychological functioning, viz. executive functions, attention and working memory. Non-significant relationships were found on depression and quality of life. The experimental group was aware about diabetes and its management. Awareness and motivation for self- management provides better health outcomes. Comprehensive psychosocial and behavioural interventions by psychologists can delay complications of neuropsychological functioning of individuals with diabetes mellitus.&nbsp;</p> Tanya Raj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.154 ANALYSIS OF BASIC PROFILE OF BLOOD DONORS IN BLOOD BANK AT NORTH KASHMIR <p><strong>Background: </strong>For the blood donation to be healthy and safe it is very important for the donor to be in good health. There is limited data regarding the profile of bloods donors in Kashmir. Our study was done to assess the demographic and health status of blood donors in north Kashmir</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross sectional study assessing the secondary data was done in blood bank associated with Government Medical college district Baramulla in North Kashmir.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 364 donors were analysed. Majority were male voluntary donors. Maximum (31 .5 %) donors were O-positive followed by B-positive and A-positive blood groups. The mean age of the participants was 30.82 ±8.14 years. . The mean weight of the study population was 69.24 ±8.9274 kg .The mean Hb of the donors was 13.3 ±0.66 gm/dl.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>Voluntary donors which are considered to be the safest type of donors were the majority in our study. More than 90 % of the study population had haemoglobin values above 12gm/dl<strong>.</strong></p> Kouser Lone Taha Ayub Shafat Sideeq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-13 2019-04-13 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.187 DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS AND ITS PREDICTORS AMONG INFANTS- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN RURAL AREAS OF SILIGURI SUBDIVISION, DARJEELING DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL. <p><strong>Background &amp; objectives: </strong>Developmental delay is a condition where a child fails to reach the different developmental domains at the expected age. Children who are developmentally delayed are less likely to be productive adults. The present study is aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of global developmental delay among the infants of rural areas of Siliguri sub division, Darjeeling district, West Bengal</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp; </strong>A descriptive epidemiological study with cross- sectional design was carried out among 780 infants in Siliguri subdivision, Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Thirty cluster sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. Data were collected by interviewing the respondents using a pre-designed and pre tested schedule. Development status was assessed using ASQ-3 scale and delay in more than one domain was defined as global developmental delay. Logistic regression was applied to find out the association between global development delay and different predictors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> &nbsp;Overall prevalence of global developmental delay was 38.2%. Neonatal factors like birth weight (p=.000), h/o neonatal infection (p=.001) and neonatal jaundice (p=.000) was found to be significantly associated with global developmental delay. No statistical significance was observed with sociodemographic and maternal factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> &nbsp;Developmental delay is high among the infants of the studied area and associated with some of the neonatal factors. Field based studies using appropriate screening tools from different parts of India including West Bengal will be helpful to find out the hidden cases and related factors.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Developmental delay, Predictors, Infants, ASQ-3, Darjeeling</p> Dr. Saumik Chakraborty Dr. Sharmistha Bhattacherjee Dr. Dilip Kumar Das Dr. Samir Dasgupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.160 CORRELATION OF HbA1C WITH MICROALBUMINURIA IN TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes is a very common disease now a days . It has adverse effect on many human organs as its duration increases. Many studies exist to show its bad effects on body organs in different parts of world. We have studied is there any relation between microalbuminuria with HbA1c levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: we have done a cross sectional study from January 2016 to March 2017 in a tertiary health care hospital located in Jhalawar, Rajasthan. Our study includes all the known case of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of age group of 45 years and above.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Total 69 patients had Urinary albumin level less than 30 mg/dl out of which Hb1Ac was less than 6.5% present in 20.2% of patients and 79.7% of patients had more than 6.5%. Total 31 patients had Urinary albumin level more than 30 mg/dl out of which only 3% had Hb1Ac value less than 6.5 % whereas 96% had Hb1Ac value more than 6.5%. This association was found to be clinically significant (Pearson Chi-Square- 4.888, df is 1 and p value is 0.027, Fishers Exact test is 0.033)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Patients having microalbuminuria were associated with high level of glycosylated haemoglobin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes Mellitus, Microalbuminuria, Glycosylated Hemoglobin.</p> Dr. Anil Kumar Dr. Neha Dr. Madhuri Meena Dr. Y. K. Sanadhya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.200 PROTONATED CRAB SHELL WASTE AS FUNGAL INHIBITOR <p>In the present time, it becomes very unlikely to overlook fungal contamination, which is a serious issue in most tropical countries. India, one of the largest tropical regions, is suffering from fungal contamination in various sectors which may damage the development of the whole nation.</p> Bharat Kwatra Maanvi Mudgil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.191 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OUTCOMES IN MANAGEMENT OF BREAST ABSCESS BY ULTRASOUND GUIDED NEEDLE ASPIRATION AGAINST INCISION AND DRAINAGE <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast abscess is a common cause of morbidity in women. While they are less common in developed countries as a result of improved maternal hygiene, nutrition, standard of living and early administration of antibiotics, breast abscess remain a problem among women in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based prospective randomized controlled trial conducted on 100 patients. 50 of them were randomized in the aspiration group and other 50 were treated by incision and drainage. All statistical analysis was done in Epi-info statistical software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study, patients in the needle aspiration group had lesser pain as compared to the patients of the incision and drainage group. Average pain score (on visual analogue scale) on day three of patients in the needle aspiration group was 4.22 as compared to 5.72 in the incision and drainage group. On day seven the pain score was 1.73 in the aspiration group and 3.89 in the incision and drainage group. By day fourteen almost all patients (94.00%) of needle aspiration group were pain free and the average pain score in the incision and drainage group was 2.0.Using the chi square test, a p value of 0.0005 was obtained suggesting a statistically significant difference.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Wherever the facility of ultrasound is available, serial percutaneous needle aspiration may be tried as a first line of therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Needle aspiration, Incision and drainage, Breast abscess.</p> Prabhu Dayal Mohan Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.201 TO EVALUATE THE HEARING RESULTS FOLLOWING OSSICULAR RECONSTRUCTION IN PATIENT WITH CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTTITIS MEDIA. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic otitis media erodes the bone, destroys the ossicles and has the potential to cause life threatening complications.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a prospective study involving patients with chronic otitis media. 120 patients were included and all of them are subjected to ossicular reconstruction either by canal wall down or intact canal wall surgery.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As per Wehr's classification 80% of patients in Group 1A have got improvement and 20% have failed to gat improved in A-B gap, in Group 1B 20% -have failed to get improved in A-B gap and in Group 1C, 30% have failed to get improved in A-B gap. 70% of patients in Group 2A have got improvement and 30% have failed to gat improved in A-B gap, in Group 2B 80% of patients have got improvement and 20% -have failed to get improved in A-B gap and in Group 2C 70% of patients have got improvement and 30% have failed to get improved in A-B gap.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All the three modalities gave statistically significant improvement (p &lt; 0.001) in A-B gap leading to improvement in hearing but among the three groups there was no statistically significant (p &gt; 0.05) difference found in improvement of A-B gap.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chronic Infection, Middle Ear, Ossicles.</p> Arjun Nath Yogee Navneet Mathur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.202 BIOCHEMICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF RICINUS COMMUNIS LEAF EXTRACT ADMINISTRATION ON LIVER AND KIDNEY IN MICE <p><strong>Background</strong>: Medicinal plants remain the mainstay for primary healthcare. The present study evaluated the effects of sub-acute administration of <em>Ricinus communis </em>fresh leaves’ methanolic extract on the histopathology and biochemistry of the liver and kidney in Swiss albino mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: 24 male and female mice were randomly assigned into four equal groups. Group I (control) received 5% tween 80 orally, while the treated groups; II, III and IV received oral <em>Ricinus communis </em>extract at 250mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day, and 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days, respectively. Tissue processing, staining and biochemical analysis were used to assess the changes induced histopathologically and biochemically on the liver and kidney tissues.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Female treated mice showed significant weight changes while male treated mice showed no changes. Histopathological alterations in liver and kidney sections were observed both in male and female mice. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant changes in both sexes. There were no significant changes in serum creatinine at all doses and in both sexes</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Methanolic extracts of <em>Ricinus communis </em>fresh leaves had hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Histopathology; <em>Ricinus communis</em>; liver; kidney; biochemical</p> Haile Gebeslassie Peter Etim Ekanem Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos Hafte Assefa Tefera Belsty Hayelom Kebele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-18 2019-04-18 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.192 CLINICAL PROFILE OF NON-TRAUMATIC ACUTE ABDOMEN AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Pain abdomen is a common presentation, it accounts for approximately 10% of the cases in emergency room and about 2 -3% of the OPD patients.</p> <p><strong>METHODS:</strong> All non trauma patients presenting with pain abdomen to emergency, above the age of 15 years were included in the study. All diagnosed pregnant females were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Most common cause of acute abdomen in our study was acute appendicitis followed by acute intestinal obstruction, cholecystitis and nephrolithiasis.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses during workup of these patients, those patients who may require surgical exploration should be identified early to limit their morbidity and mortality.</p> Dr. Naveed Anjum Qureshi Dr. Viney Sambyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-18 2019-04-18 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.203 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE REACTION TIME IN TENSION TYPE HEADACHE. <p>The study evaluated the visual and auditory reaction time (simple and choice) in tension type headache patients and healthy controls.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Study included 21 Tension type headache (TTH) patients in the age group of 21- 49 years and 21 age and sex matched controls. Simple and choice auditory and visual reaction time was recorded using Medicaid Systems RTM-604. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean ± standard deviation and Student’s unpaired t-test was applied to check the level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean values of simple visual reaction time (VRT) and auditory reaction time (ART) were not significantly different in Tension type headache patients and controls. The visual and auditory choice reaction time was longer in TTH patients as compared to controls although not statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Cognitive and psychomotor impairment has been reported in headache patients. Our findings also indicate delayed central processing in TTH patients and these findings need to be further validated in larger sample size.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Simple and choice Reaction time; Tension Type Headache</p> Dr. Mukta P Bidikar Dr. Gayatri Jagtap Dr. Rahul Chakor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-18 2019-04-18 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.198 TO STUDY THE SEX SPECIFIC DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS DERMATOSES IN THE GERIATRIC POPULATION <p>Background: In aging, a decline in the regular functions of skin is observed, including cell replacement capacity, barrier function, chemical clearance capacity, sensory perception, mechanical protection, wound healing, immune responsiveness, thermoregulation, sweat production, sebum production, vitamin D production, and capacity to repair DNA. As a result, some inevitable changes, such as roughness, wrinkling, and laxity of the skin, and atypical presentations of dermatologic diseases are observed in elderly patients.</p> <p>Methods: Five hundred consecutive patients more than 60 years of age attending the outpatient clinic or admitted as inpatients in the Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy at MDM Hospital, Jodhpur were studied.</p> <p>Results: Of the total of 500 participants in our study, 263 (52.6%) were males and the rest were females. Most common dermatosis noted in the target population was benign tumors, present in 322 patients (64.4%). Second most common disease group affecting the elderly was the infections and infestations group, being present in 215 patients (43%). Infections were present in 195 patients (39%) while infestations were present in 24 patients (4.8%). Four patients presented with infection along with infestation.</p> <p>Conclusion: Males outnumbered females with male to female ratio 1.11:1. The distribution and frequency of various dermatoses varies significantly from country to country and region to region</p> <p>Keywords: Gender, Ageing, Dermatoses, Pruritus, Senile.</p> Pankaj Rao Vineet Kumar Chandraprakash Chouhan Rekha S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.205 CORRELATION OF SERUM VITAMIN D LEVEL WITH MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEPSIS <p>Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is a common global phenomenon. Its insufficiency is also reported to be common in hospitalized patients and particularly in critically ill patients.</p> <p>Methods: Following ethical approval, consent will be sought from either the patient or assent from a near relative. Successive patients admitted to the medical emergency and ICU at tertiary care health center who fulfill the following criteria for sepsis, within a 24 h time window, were included in the study.</p> <p>Results: A total of 50 patients were enrolled in the study, 37 (74.00%) were discharged whereas 13(26.00%) patients expired. The majority of patients, irrespective of outcome had Vitamin D deficiency. Although normal Vitamin D levels were observed in relatively higher proportion of patients who were discharged (29 patients) as compared to those who expired (12 patients) yet this difference was not significant statistically (<em>P</em>&nbsp;= 0.481).</p> <p>Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency leads to increased risk of mortality in the critically ill patients.</p> <p>Keywords: Sepsis, Vitamin D deficiency, Mortality.</p> Pramod Sood Manpreet Kaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-21 2019-04-21 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.206 FASTING LIPID PROFILE AND DISEASE SEVERITY IN SEPSIS PATIENTS <p>Background: During an infection and inflammation many cytokines are released. This produces many changes in plasma lipids and lipoprotein concentration.</p> <p>Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Patients with age greater than 18 years and satisfying the criteria for sepsis according to International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock 2016 were included.</p> <p>Results: The study population comprised 16 males and 14 females with mean age of 57.2 ± 7.21 years. Both groups were comparable. Cholesterol, HDL and LDL level difference in septic and control was stastically significant.</p> <p>Conclusion: In ICU setting, measurement of cholesterol values has been shown to improve risk prediction, and inclusion of lipid values in clinical risk assessment scores of critically ill patients has been advocated.</p> <p>Keywords: Lipid profile, Sepsis, Cholesterol.</p> Pramod Sood Manpreet Kaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-21 2019-04-21 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.207 A STUDY OF EDTA DEPENDENT PSEUDOTHROMBOCYTOPENIA <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To find out the frequency of Ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA) Dependent&nbsp; &nbsp;Pseudothrombocytopenia&nbsp; &nbsp;(EDTA-PTCP)&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp; &nbsp;all&nbsp;&nbsp; blood counts</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>130 cases of suspected EDTA-PTCP were assessed for its correctness using manual platelet count as the gold standard, and compared the platelet counts in two different anticoagulants (EDTA and CPT) at different times from the time of collection of blood sample. The collected data was analysed and statistics were made accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Total 151750 haemograms were done during the study period of which 2428 cases showed thrombocytopenia, accounting for 1.6%. Amongst these, the pseudothrombocytopenia was suspected in 130 cases and was found to be correct in 119 cases, thus accounting for the incidence of EDTA-PTCP in 0.07% cases of total haemograms and 4.9 % cases of total thrombocytopenia. In 11 cases, the suspicion of Pseudothrombocytopenia was found to be incorrect. Of the total 130 cases included in the study, with M: F ratio of 1:1.3. The age of the patients varied from 3-85 years with the mean age of 36.78 ± 20.33 years</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In all the cases of thrombocytopenia showed by automated blood cell counters,&nbsp; the &nbsp;examination &nbsp;of &nbsp;peripheral&nbsp; blood&nbsp; film &nbsp;is&nbsp; must &nbsp;for&nbsp; the presence of platelet clumps to detect the cases of EDTA- dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia. To get correct platelet count in these cases, the manual platelet count is the ‘gold standard’. CPT is the better alternative anticoagulant for EDTA in cases of EDTA –PTCP for automated platelet counts.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: EDTA-PTCP,&nbsp; haemogram, CPT,&nbsp; exvivo agglutination</p> Prateek Meena Abhilasha Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 3 4 10.32553/ijmbs.v3i4.208