CURRENT ASPECTS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW
Keywords:Oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, risk factors, Pakistani population.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health burden worldwide due to its transience and fatality rate. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma varies around the globe due to demographic and genetic differences. Oral cancer is the second most prevalent oral pathology in Pakistan which ultimately leads to death. Recent study divulged that the Pakistan has the increasing trend towards the OSCC, and the incidence rate of Pakistan is like Iran and India. Human papilloma virus and betel nut are the root causes for the development of oral cancer. Oral squamous cell carcinoma occur in the oral cavity. OSSC may present as a well-established to ambiguous lesion like exophytic lesion, endophytic lesion, or sometimes in erythroleucoplastic pattern. In current situation, the use of advance technologies for early detection and prevention can overcome this burden from the population. Due to lack of local literature we rally to review the published literature on Pakistan. The collection of published studies was made by using PubMed, NCBI and Google Scholar as database search engine. We searched and include only Pakistan based population studies during the year between 2016 to 2020. We conclude that OSCC is the highly prevalent oral pathology in Pakistan with male preponderance. Most common risk factor being betel nut followed by tobacco and Grade-II carcinoma is highly prevalent oral cancer in our population.
Keywords: Oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, risk factors, Pakistani population.
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