International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;">editor@ijmbs.info</span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJMBS JOURNAL PUBLISHER en-US International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2589-868X CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS AS THE KEY TO DIAGNOSIS OF CHURG STRAUSS SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2017 <p>Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma and other allergy symptoms as well as eosinophilia and necrotizing vasculitis involving small and medium-sized vessels. Its prevalence in the general population ranges from 1-3 cases per million a year, varying according to the population studied. The authors describe a case of a male patient affected by the disease with important systemic manifestations and not very florid skin lesions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Skin manifestations; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Vasculitis</p> Monika Dhankher Sunita Manjit Pema Wangyal Bhutia P Harish Deepa Malik Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2017 TO STUDY THE DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF CLASSIC FUO https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2046 <p><strong>Background:</strong> To study the demographic profile of classic FUO</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross sectional study of one year duration performed from 1<sup>st</sup> June 2013 to 31<sup>st</sup> May 2014 in department of Medicine I.G.M.C. Shimla. Patients above 18 year of age and who fulfilled the Durack and Street criteria of FUO were included in the study</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age was 33 years (range 18 to 71 years). Thirty one patients were male (68%) and fourteen patients were female (32%).</p> <p>Conclusion: Most of patients was young male.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Age, Sex, FUO, PDCs</p> Fariduddin Nihal Chand Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2046 A RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF APPEARANCE OF OSSIFICATION CENTRES IN THE CARPAL BONES IN BOYS AND GIRLS (AGE GROUP 2 to 12 YEARS) OF THE JODHPUR REGION https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2015 <p><strong>Background:</strong> To study the appearance of ossification centres of carpal bones in both sexes in age group 2 to 12 years.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted to find out age from ossification of carpal bones on 200 children (2 years to 12 years of age) at Dr. S.N. Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Jodhpur. Minimum age of the child was 2 years and maximum 12 years. The cases were randomly selected, but priority was given to only those children whose parents could give the exact date of birth of their children.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Triquetral and lunate carpals appear after capitate and hamate. Triquetral appeared at the age of 3-4 years and lunate at the age of 4-5 years. So below the age of 3 years a child may have 2 carpals which may increase to 3 at the age of 3 years and 4 at the age of 4 years in both sexes. Trapezium, trapezoid and scaphoid carpals appeared between the age of 5 to 9 years. Their appearance was slightly earlier in females than in males. These three carpals may appear simultaneously or at different times. The pisiform was last to ossify in both the sexes. In the female it appeared between 10 to 11 years of age. In male it appeared between 11 to 12 year of age.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The sequence of appearance of carpal bones in the Jodhpur population is similar to what is described in the literature.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Carpal bone, Age, Sex</p> Shailendra Khichi P.C. Vyas Manish Tak Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2015 ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY AMONG MEDICAL INTERNS. https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2044 <p>Plastic surgery is an essential surgical sub speciality which is commonly represented as being a purely aesthetic improvement science. However in reality it holds a vital link in management of oncological or trauma cases. The medical science curriculum does not put weightage on this sub speciality. The present study was formulated to ascertain if the medical interns are adequately oriented to this speciality and the perceptions that they hold for the science. The study included 102 interns who submitted a questionnaire for assessment of their knowledge and perception. The results led to the conclusion that inadequate knowledge exists in terms of plastic surgery and must be attended to.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Interns, Reconstructive surgery, perceptions</p> Mathura Prasad Agrawal Somshekhar Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2044 AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE CYTOLOGICAL AND COLPOSCOPIC CHANGES AFTER INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES INSERTION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS GYNAECOLOGY, SMS MEDICAL COLLEGE, JAIPUR https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2012 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cytology examines exfoliated cells, while colposcopy examines the changes that occur in the vascular structure of the cervix<sup>5</sup>. Patients with an abnormal pap smear result or patients with a suspicious-looking cervix even if they had a negative pap smear, should be evaluated by colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Interventional Prospective study conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College &amp; associated Hospitals, Jaipur.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study, among 15 IUCD users, 5 (33.33%) had bacterial vaginosis, 2 (13.33%) had trichomonas vaginalis and 1 (6.66%) were found candidal infection, 1 (6.66%) polymicrobial infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study indicates that there is definite changes in the cervical architecture in IUCD users and the change is also dependent on the duration of use. A simple technique like cytology and colposcopy is highly useful in diagnosing these changes and combating them by early interference whenever necessary. The present study does not reveal any increased risk of cervicitis and dysplasia in IUCD users. We further recommend that a long term follow-up is required to rule out the possibility of any increased risk of dysplasia or carcinoma in-situ.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> IUCD, Colposcopy, Dysplasia.</p> Mamta Prajapat Suniti Verma R N Sehra Jyoti Saini Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2012 DRUG REPURPOSING: IN SILICO BASED STUDY ON REPURPOSING PHYTOCHEMICALS ON INFLUENZA https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2036 <p>By and by, the world is in a battle with the novel Influenza and with no prompt medicines accessible the scourge brought about by the disease is expanding step by step. A ton of researchers are continuing for the potential medication up-and-comer that could help the medical care framework in this battle. In recent years, studies of phytoconstituents have gradually increased worldwide because the natural sources and variety of such plants allow them to complement modern pharmacological approaches. As computer technology has developed, in silico approaches such as virtual screening and network analysis have been widely utilized in efforts to elucidate the pharmacological basis of the functions of phytoconstituents. We present a docking?based screening using a quantum mechanical scoring of a library built from approved drugs and compounds that Curcumin, Gallic Acid, Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Piperine, with Proteins Neuraminidase, Hemagglutinin, M1 and M2 Matrix proteins having PDB IDs 3BEQ, 4WE8, 5V6G, 6BKL respectively, could display antiviral activity against Influenza. Clearly, these compounds should be further evaluated in experimental assays and clinical trials to confirm their actual activity against the disease. We hope that these findings may contribute to the rational drug design against Influenza.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> PDB IDs 3BEQ, 4WE8, 5V6G, 6BKL</p> Chinmay Sonawadekar Rashmi Kamble Saloni Sawant Sriya Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-25 2021-07-25 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2036 ASSOCIATION OF SLEEP TIME WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2010 <p>Introduction: In the present study, we was examined the relation of self-reported usual sleep time to prevalence DM and IGT in a large hospital based sample of middle-aged and older adults.</p> <p>Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted on 625 patients between age group 18-60 yrs and both sex. Usual sleep time was obtained by standardized questionnaire. Diabetes mellitus was defined as a serum glucose level of 126 mg/dL or more fasting or 200 mg/dL or more 2 hours following standard oral glucose challenge or medication use for DM. Impaired glucose tolerance was defined as a 2-hour post challenge glucose level of 140 mg/dL or more and less than 200 mg/dL. The relation of sleep time to DM and IGT was examined using categorical logistic regression.</p> <p>Results: 49.28% subjects sugar level was more than 200 mg/dl and 13.72% subjects sugar level less than 140 mg/dl. The association between sleeping time and blood sugar level was found statistically significant. The association between Sleeping time and blood sugar level was found statistically significant</p> <p>Conclusion: A sleep duration of 6 hours or less or 9 hours or more is associated with increased prevalence of DM and IGT. Because this effect was present in subjects without insomnia, voluntary sleep restriction may contribute to the large public health burden of DM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> DM, IGT, Hb1Ac</p> Aja Ram Choudhary Priyanka Sunda R P Agrawal B L Meena J K Meel Swati Vyas Pooja Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2010 A STUDY OF HYPERURICACIDEMIA AND THE PRESENCE AND SEVERITY OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME IN INDEX MEDICAL COLLEGE, HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTER, INDORE ( M.P.) https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2029 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Few studies have assessed the relation of hyperuricacidemia with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study investigated the association between high uric acid levels with the presence and severity of ACS.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Methods: </strong>Three hundred and seventy patients having angiographic evidence of atherosclerosis (CAD + case group) compared to 170 patients with no luminal stenosis (n=110) or with &lt;50% luminal stenosis (n=60) at coronary angiography (CAD – control group).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 10 years (317 men, 58.7%). Hyperuricacidemia was more likely associated with a trend toward higher vessel scores, indicating a more severe CAD (adjusted OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.09-2.09; P=0.005) in the whole population. A comparison of sex-specific values showed a significant association existed only in men.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Asymptomatic hyperuricacidemia may be associated with the presence and severity of ACS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hyperuricacidemia, Severity &amp; Acute Coronary Syndrome.</p> B. Khanam M. Imran Khan Ajay Kumar Singh Sumit Solanki S.M. Holkar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2029 RISK FACTORS AND PREGNANCY OUTCOME OF ABRUPTIO PLACENTA: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2008 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp; </strong>Abruptio placenta is the most common cause of antepartum haemorrhage which is defined as separation of normally situated placenta after 20 weeks of gestation and before birth of fetus. Obstetrical haemorrhage accounts for almost half of all postpartum deaths in developing countries.&nbsp; Aim of study was to determine maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancy complicated by abruption.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a retrospective study conducted at Gopinath maternity home, Sir T. Hospital, Bhavnagar. From MAY 2020 –APRIL 2021.all pregnant women came to labour room with diagnosis of abruptio placenta were included.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total patients of abruption Identified Are 33 out of 2683 deliveries giving incidence of 1.1% In this study. Most of them are found at 26-35 years of age with 33-36 weeks of gestation. It is associated with multiparity in 57.5%. Vaginal bleeding is the most common presenting complain followed by absent fetal movement. 72.7% cases had association with preeclampsia. There is higher LSCS rates (61%) as compared to vaginal deliveries (39%). Most common complication found is DIC (30.3%) and next common is ARF (24.2%).&nbsp; case fatality rate of 6.06%. In our study 60.6% still birth and 39.3% live birth. Many of them required NICU admission.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Abruption is continued to be responsible cause of maternal and foetal adverse outcome. early detection and proper management prevents morbidity associated with it. Combined care is required for it.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Abruptio placenta, risk factors, feto-maternal outcome.</p> Kinjalben A. Savani Kanaklata Nakum Aditi Vithal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2008 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ORAL HEALTH AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE INCIDENCE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2024 <p>A population-based cluster sampling method was used to recruit 5900 Kerman residents aged 15 to 75 years old. Participants were interviewed for CVD risk factors after providing informed consent. Some oral health markers were evaluated, including DMFT, Gingival Inflammation Index, and Community Periodontal Index. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the link between oral health indicators and CVD risk variables. Results. The participants' average age was 33.5 years, and 45.1 percent of them were men. In 67.6% of the subjects, there was moderate gingival irritation. Participants were more likely to have sub- or supragingival calculus (90 percent). Cigarette smoking, increased with age (RR from 2.7 to 3.88). (RR = 1.49), and high blood glucose (RR = 1.41) showed an increased risk for oral diseases after adjustment for different covariates including established CVD risk factors. In the presence of some CVD risk factors, the study found an increase in periodontal disorders. As a result, both illnesses may have a bilateral but independent relationship, and a joint risk factor approach preventive program is strongly recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Periodontal disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).</p> Khaled Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2024 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MATERNAL OUTCOME IN FIRST-TRIMESTER VAGINAL BLEEDING IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, SMS MEDICAL COLLEGE, JAIPUR https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2006 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The outcome of ongoing pregnancies after first trimester vaginal bleeding is of relevance to women and obstetricians for planning antenatal care and clinical interventions in pregnancy. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the risks associated with first trimester bleed which may facilitate decision making regarding mode, place and timing of delivery during management, which may improve maternal and neonatal outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based comparative prospective study conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College &amp; associated Hospitals, Jaipur.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> APH was found in 4 (8.00%) patients of case group and nil in control group. So, APH was found to be more in the case group than control group but was statistically not significant. Pre-eclampsia was found in 4 (8.00%) in case group and 3 (6.00%) in control group with statistically insignificant difference between the two groups.&nbsp; 26 (52.00%) delivered at the gestational age of ?37 weeks, whereas only 8 (16%) of control group delivered at ?37 weeks. So, the gestational age at delivery of control group subjects was found to be higher as compared to case group subjects and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Threatened miscarriage in early pregnancy increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. In our study, these patients were found to be at an increased risk of preterm delivery, PPROM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> PROM, Miscarriage, Gestational age</p> Savita Meena Suniti Verma R N Sehra Suman Choudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2006 DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF ULTRASOUND IN THE DETECTION OF PNEUMOTHORAX IN CHEST TRAUMA PATIENTS WITH CT AS THE GOLD STANDARD https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2022 <p><strong>Background</strong>: To study the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in the detection of pneumothorax in chest trauma patients with CT as the Gold Standard</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted from 31<sup>th</sup> July 2018 to 30<sup>th</sup> July 2019. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> By chest ultrasound, pneumothorax was detected in 15 of 24 patients. The sensitivity of chest ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumothorax was 62.5%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 54.14% and accuracy was 75%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Chest ultrasound can play an important role in the emergency department aiding a physician for bedside rapid and accurate diagnosis of pneumothorax without interruption in the resuscitation process and without transferring the patient to the radiology section.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ultrasound, CT, Pneumothorax</p> Danquale Vance Kynshikhar Chaman Lal Kaushal Ashwani Tomar Neeti Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2022 TO STUDY THE PATTERN OF VARIOUS CERVICAL LESION https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/1999 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cancer of the cervix is an increasing health problem and an important cause of mortality in women worldwide. The incidence of cervical cancer arises worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, JLN Medical College &amp; Hospital Ajmer.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 100 smears were analyzed. Out of which 96.00% smears were satisfactory for evaluation.&nbsp; Out&nbsp; of 96.00% satisfactory smears, 30.00% shows normal smear and 52.00% shows benign cellular changes and 4.00% shows epithelial cells abnormality. 5.00% smears shows Bacterial vaginosis. 45.00% were inflammatory smears.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that cervical cytology by Pap smear is a simple, safe and effective test to detect premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix at an early stage, and thus help the clinicians in early and more efficient management of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pap smear, Cervix, Cytology.</p> Seema Gupta Deepali Jain Shweta Khandelwal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.1999 DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF CHEST X-RAY IN THE DETECTION OF PNEUMOTHORAX IN BLUNT CHEST TRAUMA PATIENTS WITH CT AS THE GOLD STANDARD https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2020 <p><strong>Background</strong>: To study the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray in the detection of pneumothorax in blunt chest trauma patients with CT as the Gold Standard</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted from 31<sup>th</sup> July 2018 to 30<sup>th</sup> July 2019. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> On Chest X-Ray Supine AP view, pneumothorax was detected in 11 of 24 patients. The sensitivity of Chest X-Ray Supine AP view was 45.83%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 48% and accuracy was 63.89% for the diagnosis of pneumothorax.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A Chest radiograph is the most preferred and relevant primary investigation in the diagnosis of pneumothorax even with the various advanced techniques that are available. X-ray being relatively cheaper and is easily available even at the peripheral centers at the primary health care level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> X-ray, CT, Pneumothorax</p> Danquale Vance Kynshikhar Chaman Lal Kaushal Ashwani Tomar Neeti Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2020 DIAGNOSTIC EFFICACY OF ENDOMETRIAL ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/1997 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial aspiration technique and to compare the cyto-morphology of aspirated smears with histopathology</p> <p>Methods: Endometrial aspiration was performed using Karman’s cannula in 100 cases who presented with abnormal uterine bleed, infertility and postmenopausal bleed. The endometrial specimens obtained by D&amp;C were processed and evaluated histologically. The endometrial aspirated smears were reviewed for cytomorphological findings and were correlated with histopathological findings for diagnostic accuracy.</p> <p>Results: Aspiration cytology is more specific for diagnosing malignant lesions (100%) while it is more sensitive for the benign conditions (85.06%) as compared to borderline lesions (complex and atypical hyperplasia), cytology also has higher NPV, PPV and Accuracy for malignant conditions as compared to the benign conditions</p> <p>Conclusion: Endometrial aspiration technique with Karman’s cannula is simple, safe, cost effective and well tolerated outpatient procedure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Endometrial aspiration cytology, Cyclic endometrium, Dilatation&nbsp;&nbsp; and Curettage, Endometrial malignancy, Karman’s cannula.</p> Swarnlata Ajmera Seema Gupta Rohit Ajmera Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.1997 TO STUDY THE ROLE OF RADIO-IMAGING IN DIAGNOSIS OF CLASSIC FUO https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2049 <p><strong>Background:</strong> To study the role of radio-imaging in diagnosis of classic FUO</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross sectional study of one year duration performed from 1<sup>st</sup> June 2013 to 31<sup>st</sup> May 2014 in department of Medicine I.G.M.C. Shimla. Patients above 18 year of age and who fulfilled the Durack and Street criteria of FUO were included in the study</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Imaging studies, chest x- ray findings were mainly suggestive of tuberculosis. Abdominal ultrasound was helpful in diagnosing abscesses and abdominal tuberculosis. CT-scan was found to be most important for diagnosing abdominal tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and splenic abscess.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Imaging studies was helpful tool for FUO diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> USG, FUO, PDCs</p> Fariduddin Ushyender Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2049 CONTRACEPTIVES POST-DELIVERY: A SURVEY OF DETERMINANTS AND ATTITUDES IN SOUTHERN RAJASTHAN. https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2018 <p>Contraception is essentially evolving into a need of the hour due to rampant population explosion as well as due to the health of the mother. In certain sections of the society, more so in the rural community, the approach towards contraceptive usage is low on account of apprehensions, societal issues or plain ignorance. The present study was designed to understand the factors that determine contraceptive usage in such a community in rural rajasthan. It was found that factors such as family type, earlier child and socio-economic factors affect the choice of contraceptive usage. The use of counselling methods can help in overcoming the initial apprehensions that are faced by the women. Secondly an awareness created in the mind of the husband and relatives can aid in providing a well balanced decision on contraception as in rural set ups, the decision does not solely rest on the female.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Attitudes, Contraception, Post-partum</p> Komal Inani Jhanwar Harshdeep Jadeja Sarika Chopra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2018 STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH PCOS (POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME) AND ITS CORRELATION WITH WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE, GLUCOSE METABOLISM AND LIPID PROFILE AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, RAJASTHAN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2047 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aims of this study was found the association of PCOS with WHR (Waist hip ratio), Lipid profile and with diabetic status of patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of General Medicine and Department of Gynecology Sardar Patel Medical College and P.B.M. Associated Group of Hospitals,Bikaner from 01 January 2020 to 31Decmbern2020.The sample size for this study is 100.</p> <h4>Results: Mean height of patients was 154.51±3.54 cm. 38.00% patients weight were 55—65 kg group. Mean weight of patients was 63.21±13.25 kg. 40.00% patients waist circumference were &lt;80 cm group. Mean waist circumference of patients was 87.35±11.50 cm. Mean BMI of patients was 26.44±5.44 kg/mt<sup>2</sup>. Mean SBP of patients was 107.84±21.75 mmHg and mean DBP of patients was 91.70±20.50 mmHg. Mean FBS of patients was 95.82±16.55 mg/dl and mean RBS of patients was 134.36±18.04 mg/dl. Mean Hb1Ac of patients was 5.35±0.85%. Mean triglyceride of patients was 113.68±19.25 mg/dl, mean LDL of patients was 95.24±14.94 mg/dl, mean cholesterol of patients was 159.98±18.26 mg/dl and mean HDL of patients was 52.16±6.32 mg/dl. Co-relation between waist circumference and fasting blood sugar &amp; random blood sugar was found statically significant.</h4> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> PCOS, being a common condition prevailing in women with reproductive age group, is the cause of problem for one in four patients attending a gynecologist. Despite treating the infertility and menstrual complaints of the PCOS patients, it is a treating doctor’s duty to take it as an opportunity to screen for metabolic syndrome and advice for healthy diet, physical activity and weight reduction. Healthy life style modification not only improves their menstrual and ovulatory symptoms, but also prevents the future cardiovascular and other morbid ailments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> PCOS, LDL,FBS,HDL,Hb1Ac</p> Priyanka Sunda Aja Ram Choudhary R P Agrawal B L Meena J K Meel Swati Vyas Pooja Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2047 TO EVALUATE THE SENSITIVITY OF TVS IN PREDICTING ENDOMETRIAL PATHOLOGY https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2016 <p><strong>Background:</strong> To evaluated the sensitivity of TVS in predicting endometrial pathology</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a descriptive type of observational study conducted among women with Postmenopausal Bleeding who attended the Gynaecology OPD SMS Medical College Jaipur. 60 Postmenopausal patients were included in this study. After fulfilling the inclusion crtieria a detailed history and clinical examination was done as per Proforma, followed by investigations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In majority of patients histopathlogy is found as atrophic endometrium i.e. 23 cases, out of which majority of patients had endometrial thickness &lt; 4 mm on TVS. After that endometrial hyperplasia is found in 14 patients. On TVS majority of these cases had ET &gt; 4 mm&nbsp; i.e. 11 cases but 3 cases of endometrial hyperplasia had ET &lt; 4 MM, these 3 cases were likely to be missed at a cut off of 4 mm of endometrial thickness on TVS. Endomatrial polyp had ET &gt; 6 mm on TVS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Transvaginal sonography is safe, simple, non invasive and cost effective in the diagnosis of endometrial disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> TVS, Endometrial, Hyperplasia.</p> Mona Rani B S Meena Leela Arshdeep Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2016 EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS LIKE CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND PARATHORMONE IN PREDICTING THE COMPLICATIONS & MORTALITY IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2045 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an international public health problem affecting about 5–10% of the population. As kidney function declines, there is a progressive deterioration in mineral homeostasis with disruption of normal serum concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and changes in circulating levels of hormones like parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Vitamin D<sub>3</sub>.</p> <p>Hyperparathyroidism plays a vital role in the excess morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease. As a result; patients are at increased risk of bone disease, extraosseous calcification, and death.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives: </strong>To estimate the serum Calcium, Phosphorus, Parathyroid Hormone levels in patients with CKD and to compare them with healthy individuals. To know the association between Calcium, phosphorus and PTH in CKD patients.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods: </strong>50 cases of CKD and 50 controls were included in the study. Serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH were measured in both cases and controls.</p> <p>Statistically significant increases in levels of all parameters were seen in cases as compared to controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The levels of PTH, calcium &amp; phosphorus are used as surrogate markers of disease progression. Abnormalities can occur subtly, usually without any symptoms, and may progress to cause more complications if not detected early. The ultimate goals of treating secondary hyperparathyroidism are to normalize mineral metabolism, prevent bone disease, and prevent extra skeletal manifestations of the altered biochemical processes.</p> <p>Various CKD Guidelines recommend targets and early treatment strategies to correct serum levels of phosphorus, calcium, and PTH levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>CKD – Chronic kidney disease, PTH – Parathyroid hormone, ESRD – End stage renal disease, Glomerular filtration rate -GFR</p> Jyothi A Natikar Asha G Alapaty Shailaja Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2045 PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN THE RAICA COMMUNITIES https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2014 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Raica community of Rajasthan</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> Cross sectional population based study.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> 14000 individuals from different districts of Rajasthan were selected using stratified sampling of representative Raica community, consuming or not consuming camel milk. Demographic, clinical and other parameters were obtained and OGTT were performed in all individuals to diagnose IGT and DM. Associations were investigated using multivariate logistic regression using SPSS version 15.0</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Mean fasting sugar and 2hr post prandial blood sugar was 84.28±16.36 and 95.82±14.98 for RCCM, 85.50±15.66 and 99.81±18.21 for RCNCM. On comparing IGT and DM in two groups with respect to age it was observed that in RCCM group 4.96% had IGT and only 15% had DM out of 12144 subjects, whereas in RCNCM IGT and DM was 9.87% and 1.05%</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From this study we concluded that camel milk consumption have a high impact on prevalence of diabetes in the communities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> IGT and DM.</p> Swati Vyas Pooja Yadav R P Agrawal B L Meena J K Meel Aja Ram Choudhary Priyanka Sunda Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2014 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CLOPIDOGREL BISULFATE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2037 <p>Transdermal drug delivery is an alternative route for systemic drug delivery which minimizes the absorption and increases the bioavailability. The main objective of the present work was to develop a suitable matrix type transdermal drug delivery system of Clopidogrel bisulphate using different polymers HPMC E15, Eudragit L100 and to compare the drug release through physical method and chemical method. Matrix type transdermal patches containing Clopidogrel Bisulfate were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared transdermal patches were evaluated for Thickness, folding endurance, tensile strength and in vitro studies. The prepared transdermal drug delivery system of Clopidogrel bisulphate using different polymers such as HPMC E15 and Eudragit L 100 had shown good promising results for all the evaluated parameters. Based on the In-vitro drug release, drug content and folding endurance results formulation F4 was concluded as an optimized formulation which shows its higher percentage of drug release.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transdermal drug delivery, Clopidogrel bisulphate, HPMC E15, Eudragit L100</p> P. Srikanth Reddy V. Alagarsamy G. Ravi P. Subhash Chandra Bose D. Saritha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-25 2021-07-25 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2037 ROLE OF HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA IN PREDICTON OF GANGRENOUS/PERFORATED APPENDICITIS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2011 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the role of hyperbilirubinemia as a new diagnostic tool for predictor of gangrenous / perforated appendicitis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based prospective study was conducted on 100 patients with perforated/gangrenous appendix</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In acute appendicitis case out of 84 cases 26 cases bilirubin level was more than 1mg/dl, in gangrenous appendicitis out of 3 cases all cases bilirubin level was more than 1mg/dl and in perforated appendicitis out of 13 cases 12 cases bilirubin level was more than 1mg/dl</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded from present study that elevated total serum bilirubin without elevation of liver enzymes is a good indicator of appendicular perforation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Perforation, Appendicitis, Bilirubin</p> Irfan Hussain Khan Arun Bhargava Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2011 ESTIMATION OF TIME SINCE DEATH FROM THE CHANGES IN VITREOUS HUMOUR SODIUM (Na+) AND POTASSIUM (K+) LEVEL https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2034 <p>Background: For investigation of crime, it is very important to determine ‘time since death’ i.e. the interval between death and the time of postmortem examination also called as ‘postmortem interval. This is very important in criminal cases as it shows the track to the investigators to reach the suspected person and to obligate the innocent ones.</p> <p>Methods: The present study was conducted in Forensic Medicine Department on cases died in Dr. S.N. Medical College &amp; associated Group of Hospitals, Jodhpur in association with Department of Biochemistry.</p> <p>Results: The linear correlation of the vitreous sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) ion concentration was found statistically insignificant (r=0.045) therefore the coefficient of correlation could not be derived.</p> <p>Conclusion: We have observed linear rise of potassium (K<sup>+</sup>) ion concentration in the vitreous humour. The linear relationship of the increase in vitreous potassium (K<sup>+</sup>) ion concentration with increasing postmortem interval is both arithmatic as well as logarithmatic (statistically significant).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Na, K, Postmortem.</p> Binaca Gandhi Shailendra Khichi Mahendra Khokhar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-25 2021-07-25 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2034 A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) AT TERTIARY CARE CENTER https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2009 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Worldwide, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the single largest cause of death and disability following injury. Most TBI’s are due to road side accidents. According to WHO data, by the year 2020, head trauma will be third largest killer in the developing world.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The present study was conducted in Department of Neurosurgery. The study group consisted of a total of 200 head injury patients presenting to the Trauma center and admitted in neurosurgery ward.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 200 cases maximum case(40.00%) were from 21-30 year age group and minimum case(3.00%) were from 0-10 year age group. 81.00% were male and 19.00% were female. Only 21.00% patients managed by surgical treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The lack of awareness among the pedestrians and disregard for traffic rules by the motorists were important reasons for most of the accidents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Neurosurgery, Trauma, Injury.</p> Govind Mangal Uday Bhaumik Gaurav Varnwal Giriraj Prajapati Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2009 COVID-19 AMONG DIABETES PATIENTS TYPE 2 https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2025 <p>A total of 74 COVID-19 diabetic patients were enrolled in the study. Twenty-seven patients (36.5%) were severely ill, and ten patients (13.5%) died. Severe patients had higher blood glucose, serum amyloid A (SAA), C reactive protein, and interleukin 6 levels than non-severe patients (P&gt; &nbsp;0.05). Severe patients had lower levels of albumin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, small and dense low density lipoprotein, and CD4 T lymphocyte counts than non-severe patients (P &gt; 0.05). Reduced CD4 21 + T lymphocyte counts (OR = 0.988, 95 percent confidence interval [95 percent CI] 0.979–0.997) and elevated SAA levels (OR = 1.029, 95 percent CI 1.002–1.058) were found as risk variables for COVID- 19 severity with diabetes in a logistic regression analysis (P &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, Diabetes, Hyperglycemia, Dislipidemia, CD4+ T lymphocyte , follow up symptoms.</p> Mozoun Dafer Alahmari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2025 FETOMATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANCY WITH CARDIAC DISEASE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2007 <p><strong>Objective(S):</strong> Cardiac disease is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in both antepartum as well as in postpartum period. Incidence of heart disease with pregnancy is &lt;1%. Aim of this study is to determine maternal complications with heart disease, mode of delivery &amp; fetal complications.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methodology:</strong> This is a retrospective study conducted at Gopinath Maternity Home, Sir-T Hospital, Bhavnagar. From May 2020- April 2021. All pregnant women with various cardiac disease (previously established or diagnosed during pregnancy) who came to labor room or OPD are included.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>30 pregnant women out of 2683 deliveries were identified with cardiac disease giving prevalence of 1.12% in this study. 15(50%) women belonging to NYHA class-1 &amp; 8(26.6%) belonged to NYHA class 2. Class 3(3 patients =10%) &amp; class 4(4patients= 13.3%) were admitted immediately. 18(60%) women were case of valvular heart disease, out of which 12(66.6%) cases were of RHD, 2(11.1%) were MS, 3(16.6%) AS, 1(5.5%) MR. 10(33.33%) cases were congenital heart disease. Maternal mortality were 4(13.33%). Out of 30 cases, 18(69.2%) women had LSCS, 6(23.07%) had vaginal delivery,2(7.7%) had vaccum &amp; 3(10.3%) had abortion. Out of 26 deliveries 2(7.7%) were IUFD, 6(23.07%) Preterm, 7(26.9%) IUGR. Total there were 9(37.5%) NICU admissions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prognosis of pregnancy with heart disease has improved but management of it is still a challenge for obstetricians. Pre-conceptional counseling plays an important role by benefiting women with severe heart disease and thus help in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;cardiac disease, maternal outcome, fetal outcome</p> Kalyani K Bafna Kanaklata Nakum Aditi Vithal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2007 ASSOCIATION OF PATTERN OF MYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS WITH ADVANCED AND EARLY HEART FAILURE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2023 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The cardiomyopathies are defined as “hetrogenous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not invariably) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and are due to variety of causes that frequently are genetic. They usually present clinically with heart failure.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cross sectional hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis in patients with heart failure with LVEF (Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction) of &lt;45% without RWM(Regional Wall Motion)&nbsp; abnormality on echocardiography evaluated in department of cardiology at IGMC, Shimla over a period of one year.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The myocardial fibrosis was seen in the 10 (47.62%) patients of advanced heart failure and 6(35.29%) patients of early heart failure with insignificant P value of 0.52 and odd ratio of 1.64.The subendocardial myocardial fibrosis in coronary territory was seen in the 3(14.29%) patients of advanced heart failure and 2(11.76%) patients of early heart failure with insignificant P value of 1.00 and odd ratio of 1.24.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The association of pattern of myocardial fibrosis with advanced and early heart failure was found statistically Insignificants</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MRI, Myocardial, &nbsp;Heart failure.</p> Chaman Lal Kaushal Danquale Vance Kynshikhar Anupam Jhobta Dimple Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2023 PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVEL IN DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2005 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Acute abdominal pain is a common complaint among emergency department patients. Diagnosis of one of the most common pathologies behind acute abdominal pain, acute appendicitis, has radically changed over the last decades.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The source of data was from pretested proforma which takes into account clinical history, general physical examination, relevant investigations imaging modalities. All data were analyzed by Epi-info software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean CRP level in 0-6 mm appendix diameter patients was 1.63±2.32mg/dl, in 6-8 mm diameter cases was 2.89±3.67mg/dl, 8-10 mm cases CRP level was 3.60±3.24 mg/dl and in 10-12 mm diameter cases CRP level was 3.61±2.28 mg/dl.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Raised serum C-reactive protein reducing the rate of negative explorations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> CRP, Appendix, Pain</p> Dedipya Chandra Shrimali Manohar Lal Dawan Mahipal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2005 PATTERN OF MYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS IN ISCHEMIC AND NON ISCHEMIC CARDIOMYOPATHY https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2021 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The cardiomyopathies are defined as “heterogenous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not invariably) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and are due to variety of causes that frequently are genetic.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cross sectional hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis in patients with heart failure with LVEF (Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction) of &lt;45% without RWM (Regional Wall Motion) abnormality on echocardiography evaluated in department of cardiology at IGMC, Shimla over a period of one year.</p> <p><strong>Demographics: </strong></p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Demographics</strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong>Overall Group </strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong>Male</strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong>Female </strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p>Mean Age (year ) ± SD</p> </td> <td> <p>53.86&nbsp; ± 16.34</p> </td> <td> <p>&nbsp;54.45&nbsp; ± 19.41</p> </td> <td> <p>53.94&nbsp; ± 16.36</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p>Gender (n)</p> </td> <td> <p>38</p> </td> <td> <p>17 (44.73%)</p> </td> <td> <p>21(55.26%)</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 4 (100%) patients of ischemic cardiomyopathy and 3 (18.75%) patients of non ischemic cardiomyopathy with significant P value of 0.01 and odd ratio of 1.67.&nbsp; The subendocardial myocardial fibrosis was seen in 3 (75%) patients of ischemic cardiomyopathy while it was not seen in non ischemic cardiomyopathy with significant P value of &lt; 0.01 and odd ratio of 3.59.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cardiac MRI has important role in dilated cardiomyopathies for distinguishing ischemic and non ischemic types as well as in evaluation of various etiological types.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MRI, Myocardial, Cardiomyopathies</p> Chaman Lal Kaushal Danquale Vance Kynshikhar Anupam Jhobta Dimple Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2021 TO STUDY THE RISK FACTOR OF POST-PARTUM HEMORRHAGE IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN NORTH WEST RAJASTHAN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/1998 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Present study was conducted to evaluate the risk factor of PPH.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Study group comprises of 100 females attending obstetrics and gynecology department in S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. Delivered women ? 28 weeks seen during the first hour of PPH with visual blood loss &gt;500 ml in normal vaginal delivery and &gt; 1000 ml during LSCS were included in the study.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 100 cases, 17(17%) had multiparity followed by 7(7%) each had previous LSCS and prolonged labor, 5(5%) each had multiple pregnancy and macrosomia, 3(3%) each had placenta previa and previous 2 LSCS, 2(2%) each had postdatism and precipitate labor and 1(1%) had breech.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Multiparty was most common risk factor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hemorrhage, Post-partum, Risk factor</p> Santosh Khajotia Kavita Choudhary Moolchand Khichar Manoj Gupta Madhuri Sharma Mamta Bijarniya Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.1998 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HS-CRP AND ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE EVENT IN A SAMPLE POPULATION IN RAJASTHAN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2019 <p>Use of serum markers has been a established practice in medicine. CRP levels have been known to provide a estimate of inflammation. The present study was formulated to ascertain if levels of CRP in acute ischaemic stroke cases can be a prognostic or diagnostic marker for the condition. The study was a prospective case control format and utilized a subject pool of 50 subjects as case and control each. The study observed a significantly elevated level of CRP in cases with an acute ischaemic stroke. The study concluded that use of CRP can be a an effective modality in clinical practice in managing such cases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> CRP, Acute Ischaemic Stroke, TOAST</p> Rajesh Khoiwal Vipin Sisodia Somshekhar Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2019 Role of calcium channel blocker in excessive mast cell degranulation https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/1981 <p>Here, I present a case of a female patient, age 45 years, for whom the uncontrolled mast cell degranulation created many issues related to allergy like, skin rash, itching, breathing discomfort, frequent throat infection, GERD, migraine, fibromyalgia, peripheral neuropathy, depression, anxiety disorder, constipation etc. For the patient, it was observed that calcium channel blockers seem to control the unnecessary and uncontrolled mast cell degranulation. CCB seemed to have a role to play in mast cell degranulation.</p> Sagarika Datta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.1981 STUDY THE RELATION BETWEEN SERUM SODIUM AND THE MODEL FOR END-STAGE LIVER DISEASE SCORE IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL BIKANER, RAJASTHAN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2048 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Liver cirrhosis was common problem in india. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyponatremia in liver cirrhosis and the correlation between serum sodium and the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score in patients with liver cirrhosis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We prospectively collected data of 100 patients of chronic liver disease hospitalized in department of General Medicine Sardar Patel medical college, Bikaner. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of patients was 52.11±14.63 years and consisted of 78 men and 22 women. The mean MELD score, 14.21±4.98 and mean serum sodium concentration, 133.21±8.24 mmol/L. Serum sodium values were strongly associated with severity of cirrhosis, assessed by child Pugh class and MELD score.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hyponatremia is a common problem in liver cirrhosis, especially advanced cirrhosis. The study showed that there is an association between hyponatremia and the presence of certain complications of liver cirrhosis. Also hyponatremia was associated with a higher severity of cirrhosis assessed by MELD scores.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Child pugh class, Liver cirrhosis, MELD score, Hyponatremia</p> Ved Prakash Meghwal Rohitash Kularia Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.2048 The Mother’s knowledge, attitude and practices towards child’s oral health care in Western Maharashtra: A questionnaire study https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/1890 <p><strong>Background: </strong>It is important to initiate basic good oral health habits in childhood so that the appropriate dental norms are established and then maintained into adult life. The family is the first institution that influences child behaviour and development, especially mothers, who are the primary model for developing behaviour.<strong> Materials and methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among the mothers in Pune city. All mothers having children aged below 5 years old was selected in the study. The questionnaire includes a range of response options designed to identify the awareness among the mothers towards their child’s oral health and also the various measures taken to maintain oral hygiene. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test.<strong> Results: </strong>In this study, a total of 500 subjects participated. The knowledge regarding fluorides was poor and the majority 62% of parents were unaware of the positive anti-cariogenic effect of fluoridated toothpaste on dental health. Around 91% of mothers feel it is essential to clean their child’s teeth after every meal whereas 9% feel it is not so required.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>The mother’s knowledge of the child’s oral health care was inadequate. Oral health education and school oral health programs should be conducted at regular interval.</p> Sharayu Dhande Renuka Nagarale Mandar Todkar Bilal Shaikh Prerna Ghodke Raunak Baksh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.1890 IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON PTEN AND CYCLIN D1 IN NON-NEOPLASTIC AND NEOPLASTIC ENDOMETRIAL LESIONS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/1969 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy in developed countries and has been classified into two groups, type 1 and type 2. &nbsp;Type 1 or endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECA) accounts for 80% of EC and are thought to develop following a continuum of premalignant lesions ranging from endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (EH) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumor suppressor gene is commonly inactivated in 83 % of endometrioid carcinoma and 55% of precancerous lesions. Cyclin D1, a cell cycle regulator is overexpressed in about 40% of endometrial carcinomas.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To study the expression of PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) and Cyclin D1 in non-neoplastic and neoplastic endometrial lesions by immunohistochemistry (IHC).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A 2 year cross-sectional study (September 2017 to August 2019) on 115 endometrial samples was done in the Department of Pathology, RIMS. Histomorphological features and IHC expression of PTEN and Cyclin D1 in the various endometrial lesions were studied and evaluated, data collected in IBM SPSS Statistics 21 was statistically analyzed using Chi - square&nbsp; and Fisher’s Exact test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of the 115 cases, 47(40.9%) were diagnosed as benign proliferative endometrium, 20(17.4%) benign secretory endometrium, 21(18.3%) hyperplasia without atypia, 15(13.0%)&nbsp; atypical hyperplasia and 12(10.4%) endometrial carcinoma with an age group spanning from 26-68 years (mean age = 46.4).&nbsp; Following IHC staining, 91.7%(11/12) and 83.3%(10/12) cases of EC and 80%(12/15) and 73.3%(11/15) cases of AH showed complete loss of PTEN expression and Cyclin D1 overexpression, respectively when compared to other benign lesions and was statistically significant&nbsp; (p &lt; .001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Loss of PTEN and Cyclin D1 overexpression was seen in a significant number of EECA and AH, suggesting both as an early event in endometrial carcinogenesis. Therefore, we propose the use of PTEN and Cyclin D1 immunostaining as an adjunct to histopathological diagnosis as it may be informative in the identification and further management of&nbsp; premalignant endometrial&nbsp; lesions that are likely to progress to carcinoma</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>PTEN, Cyclin D1, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.</p> Alpana Laisom Gayatri Pukhrambam Yumnam Shameen Ningthibi Akoijam Prasanta Sinam Monali Debnath Bipasha Debbarma Rajarshi Sen Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 5 7 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i7.1969