International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;"></span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJMBS JOURNAL PUBLISHER en-US International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2589-868X <p>&nbsp;</p> <p class="caption" style="text-align: center;"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" width="60" height="21" border="0"></a>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS)<span style="line-height: 1.3em;">&nbsp;</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">by </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Articles</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;"> is licensed under a </span><a style="line-height: 1.3em;" title="Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">.</span></p> A STUDY ON IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS <p>Background: Nutritional anemia is a global problem of immense health significance affecting persons of all age and economic group. Anemia is one of the most common hematological abnormalities found in children. It can be defined as the reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity or as a reduction in the red cell mass of the body</p> <p>Methods: This was cross-sectional study. All the adolescent girls studying in standards 9th - 12<sup>th</sup> class who were given consent to hemoglobin estimation were included in the study.</p> <p>Results: The mean age of adolescent girls were 12.09±2.15 years and mean Hb level was 10.05±2.1gm/dl. The association between SES and anemia was found statistically significant. The association between type of family and anemia was also found statistically significant.</p> <p>Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls is alarmingly high in India.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Prevalence, Anemia, Adolescent.</p> Sanju Bhati Vijay Pal Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1328 A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC USAGE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS <p>Background: Antibiotics/antimicrobials constitute a major tool against infectious diseases in India especially due to host and environment factors like malnutrition, multiple vitamin deficiencies, overcrowding, illiteracy, poverty, poor sanitary facilities, low standards of personal hygiene and inadequate vector control.</p> <p>Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study. It was done to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding antibiotic use and resistance. A pre-validated questionnaire prepared after a review of similar studies and scrutinized by subject experts has been used.</p> <p>Results: 80.00% of respondents agreed that antibiotic resistance is an important and serious public health issue in the hospital. 80.00% were aware that bacteria are not responsible for causing common cold and influenza.</p> <p>Conclusion: In our study, most of the students had good knowledge and were aware of the problem of antimicrobial resistance, but still used antibiotics for self-medication.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Knowledge, Medical student, Antibiotic.</p> Monika Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1329 A COMPARATIVE, QUESTIONNAIRE BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON SELF MEDICATION PRACTICE AMONG MEDICAL AND PARAMEDICAL STUDENTS <p>Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO), self medication is use of medicines to treat self recognized symptoms, or use of a prescribed medicine for chronic symptoms. It is associated with use of prescription drugs, alternative medicines and over the counter drugs (OTC).</p> <p>Methods: This was a prospective, observational, questionnaire based study where two groups of students were interviewed with a prevalidated questionnaire. The first group comprised of students from MBBS while the second group consisted of students of paramedical courses namely physiotherapy, operation theatre technicians and lab technicians.</p> <p>Results: A total of 200 students with an average age 19.62±0.65 years participated in the study. Among these students, 100 were medical students. All the students had practiced self medication however, only 51.00% agreed with the concept of self-medication. Considering the significant „p‟ value to be &lt;0.05 there was a significant difference among the 2 groups with respect to awareness of generic and brand names of the drugs and importance of completing the course of treatment. 51.00% of medical and 29.00% paramedical students were aware about generic and brand names of drugs while knowledge about importance of completing course of treatment was present in 62% medical and 42% paramedical students. (p value&lt;0.05). Also, there was no significant difference regarding the knowledge about the content, dose, duration of treatment and frequency of drug administration among the two groups.</p> <p>Conclusion: The present study shows a high prevalence of selfmedication among medical and paramedical students of the institution. The knowledge about self-medication was encouraging among the students of both the groups.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Self medication, student, knowledge</p> Monika Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1330 SPECTRUM OF BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA <p>Background: Blunt abdominal trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups. Many injuries may not manifest during the initial assessment and treatment period.</p> <p>Methods: Hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Trauma center and P.B.M Hospital, Bikaner</p> <p>Results: Distribution according to type of injury consisted of maximum cases, 86% of road traffic accidents 74 of which were male and 12 female. 10% cases were of fall from height, 6 were male and 4 female .Assault cases were 4%. Case distribution according to organ involved consisted of 54.00% cases of liver injury,18.00% cases were of splenic injury, 23.00% patients had ilial injury, Pancreatic injury occurred in 2patient.</p> <p>Conclusions: Males were pre-dominantly affected. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of injury. Though conservative management is successful in carefully selected patients, operative management remains the main stay of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Blunt abdominal trauma, Liver injury, Perforation, Splenic injury</p> Ajay Pal Indira . L. K. Kapil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1331 CLINICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE IN NEONATAL SEPTICEMIA AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL <p>Background: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity &amp; mortality among NICU graduates. The etiology of neonatal septicemia has variations depending upon various customs and practices in the perinatal and neonatal period and geographical area. Therefore, knowledge of microbial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility is very important for management of neonatal sepsis. The aim of our study is to determine the bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia and the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern.</p> <p>Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the NICU of Department of Pediatrics, KD Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre Mathura (U.P.) among 100 neonates from july 2019 to December 2019. Two ml of venous blood was taken from each neonate &amp; cultured by automated BacT/Alert &amp; VITEK2 method for rapid isolation &amp; sensitivity test. A structured proforma was used to gather information for baseline features like age, gender, birth weight, gestational age, mode of delivery of the neonate and age of onset of illness.</p> <p>Result: In the present study, both Gram-negative &amp; Gram-positive organisms are responsible for neonatal sepsis. <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>&nbsp;was found to be the predominant pathogen followed by&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em><em>.</em> Most organisms are multi-drug resistant.</p> <p>Conclusion: Cefotaxim, amikacin, meropenam and vancomycin were found useful in treating neonatal septicemia and hence incorporated in our institutional antibiotic policy for use in NICU. Authors recommend an effective infection-control programme, regular antibiotic sensitivity surveillance, encouragement of rational antibiotic use. It will reduce nosocomial infections and development of bacterial resistance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Neonatal sepsis, antimicrobial susceptibility, Klebsiella, antibiotic susceptibility surveillance.</p> Krishna Pada Dutta Nitin Gyaras Puria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-06 2020-08-06 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1334 NEUROSONOGRAPHY SPECTRUM OF HYPOXIC ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY <p>Introduction: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a very catastrophic condition that may result in severe neurologic deficits or even death. Neuroimaging with transcranial ultrasound (US) is a valuable tool in the workup of patients with HIE. The pattern of brain injury depends on the severity and duration of hypoxia and degree of brain maturation.<sup>1</sup></p> <p>Aim: To study imaging spectrum of various stages of HIE</p> <p>Objective: To determine severity of HIE on basis of Neuro-sonography.</p> <p>Settings and Design: The study was conducted at J K Lone Paediatric hospital attached to SMS hospital. It is a Prospective study.</p> <p>Materials and Method: Pre term neonates having some history of hypoxia antenatally or perinatally like placental abruption, low Apgar at delivery, seizures coming to JK lone Paediatric Hospital attached to SMS hospital referred to Dept of Radiodiagnosis for evaluation of HIE were scanned using Transcranial ultrasound it included grayscale on Hitachi machine.</p> <p>Results- Different grades of HIE changes were witnessed. Out of 33 cases:</p> <p>5 neonates were sonographically normal, 3 showed grade 1 GMH, 3 showed grade 2 GMH, 4 showed grade 3 GMH and 4 showed grade 4 . 3 neonates showed grade 1 PVL, 2 grade 2 PVL, 4 showed grade 3 PVL, 5 showed grade 4 PVL. In doppler findings of ACA, it was noted the RI (resistive index) was on the higher side.</p> <p>Conclusion: Neurosonography and doppler is very helpful non-invasive tool to detect early changes of HIE and assess severity and progression of hypoxic brain injury. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> HIE, hypoxic brain injury, germinal matrix haemorrhage and periventricular leucomalacia</p> Sunil Jakhar Bineeta Singh Parihar Anu Bhandari Kuldeep Mendiratta Meenu Bagarhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1335 PERSONALISATION OF A DENTURE <p>Dentures, whether complete or partial, are the mostly used prosthesis worldwide by the people who are in lack of their natural teeth. Dentures have become a necessity for them for esthetic, functional and psychological reasons. Personalisation of the prosthetics (dentures etc.) has become a challenging job for the dental surgeons worldwide. It is also useful in forensic dentistry for identification of individuals in natural or human aggressive calamities. Though various methods have been described for identification of dentures but none of them fulfill all the requirements prescribed by American Dental Association (ADA). Here, a method for personalisation of denture will be described which is cosmetically appealing and cost effective. Besides, it satisfies most of the requirements laid down by ADA simply by adding up a few steps in the procedure of denture fabrication.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Denture Tagging, Denture Labeling, Denture Marking, OHP sheet.</p> Syeda Shamima Nastaran Quazi Mohammad Ali Bhat Zabroo Manjula Das Rajesh. S. Nongthombam Arunoday Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-09 2020-08-09 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1341 CONTROLLING MYOPIA PROGRESSION IN CHILDREN <p>Main aim of this article was a systematic review on causes and management of Myopia progression in children. Myopia is a general disorder, affecting just about one-third of the US popula­tion and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. Elevated amounts of myopia are connected with a bigger risk of sight-threatening troubles, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially advantage millions of children in the India. Few approaches used for myopia organize have proven to be useful. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be inef­fective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and pharmaceutical agents such as atropine, timolol or pirenzepine.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Myopia progression, pharmaceutical agents, lenses, treatment.</p> Neelam Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1332 FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW <p>In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), also known as hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, modified-shape systems, high-density systems, and other delayed gastric emptying devices. The different strategies used in the development of FDDS by constructing the effervescent and noneffervescent type of floating tablets basis of which is buoyancy mechanism. FDDS is a method to deliver the drugs that are active locally with a narrow absorption window in the upper gastrointestinal tract, unstable in the lower intestinal environment, and possess low solubility with higher pH values. The recent developments in floating drug delivery systems are containing the physiological and formulation variables impacting on gastric retention time, approaches to formulating of single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are discussed in detail. This review also summarizes evaluation parameters and application of floating drug delivery systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), Gastric residence time, Swelling index, Buoyancy.</p> Vijay Sharma D.S. Rathore Amit Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 4 8 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i8.1333