International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;">editor@ijmbs.info</span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJMBS JOURNAL PUBLISHER en-US International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies 2589-868X AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HYPERTENSION AMONG RESIDENT OF BIKANER, RAJASTHAN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2295 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence of hypertension in study population of 18 years and above</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based cross sectional study was carried out in Bikaner (Rajasthan). Sample size of 500 participants of age more than 18 yrs residing in study area taken. A semi-structured &amp; pretested questionnaire used to interview the patients after obtaining their consent.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study, 33.6% were having normal BP. 34.3% were having pre hypertensive, 24.4% patients were having stageI and 7.6% stage II hypertensive</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that, prevalence of hypertension found to be 32.0%. most of hypertensive were already diagnosed. As age advances, prevalence of HTN also increases. Prevalence was more in females compared to males.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, Gender, Age, Prevalence.</p> Parvez Khan Sameja Ravi Datt Ketan Bhatnagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2295 PREGNANCY AND BREAST CANCER: A CASE REPORT https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2263 <p>During pregnancy cancer is rare, but in pregnant female breast cancer is the second most common cancer. Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as breast cancer that is discovered during pregnancy or within one year of delivery. The present case is reported to emphasize the importance of early recognition of this condition. A 28-year-old antenatal female, who presented with palpable breast mass.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>PABC.</p> Sunita Yadav Shivangi Maurya Anu Bharti Priyanka Giriraddi Mahak Singaal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2263 LIPID PROFILE IN COPD PATIENTS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2291 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The COPD patients are expected to have a deranged lipid profile for various reasons like smoking, aging, and using such drugs as steroids. Aims of study to estimate the lipid profile level in COPD patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 COPD patients and including 50 control were enrolled in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The lipid profile in COPD patients, unpaired t test was performed and it was observed that COPD patients showed significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL and serum concentrations of HDL were also decreased significantly compared to controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> COPD patients showed significantly higher serum cholesterol level in COPD patients as compared to controls.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Total cholesterol, TG, COPD.</p> Ramavatar Bairwa Pratibha Pareek Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2291 A STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE-2 PATIENTS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2289 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To study the lipid profile in diabetes mellitus in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This is a cross sectional case control study. 100 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken. Lipid profile were done in cases and controls using appropriate tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The fasting blood sugar levels in all the diabetics were significantly higher as compare to control. There was significant difference in mean HDL, Triglycerides level in diabetic and control patients. There was no significant difference in LDL, Cholesterol level in Diabetic and control patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We concluded that there is a high prevalence of elevated lipid levels among the diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diabetes Mellitus -2, Cholesterol, Lipid Profile</p> Vipin Kumar Maya Pensiya V B Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2289 PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND SURVIVAL IN TRIPLE NEGATIVE AND NON-TRIPLE NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER: EXPERIENCE OF A TERTIARY CARE CANCER CENTER IN ODISHA. https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2310 <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Because of its high-risk biological features and lack of effective treatment options, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has received greater clinical and experimental interest.</span></p> </div> <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Aim and </span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US">objectives: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim&nbsp;of this study was to compare and analyze&nbsp;the clinicopathological features, recurrence, metastasis, and prognosis of patients with TNBC and non-triple negative breast cancer (non-TNBC).</span></p> </div> <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Material and methods:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> This single hospital-based retrospective study was conducted on patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with breast cancer and subsequently treated from 2017 to 2018 at the Acharya Harihar Postgraduate Institute of Cancer. The clinical features and prognosis of TNBC and non-TNBC were compared.</span></p> </div> <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;This study comprised a total of 111 patients, with 36 (32.43%) being TNBC and 75 (67.56%) being non-TNBC. TNBC has 22 patients under the age of 40 (61.1%). Grade III tumors were seen in 47% of TNBC patients and 21% of non-TNBC patients (p-value = 0.05). The disease free survival (DFS) was determined to be 58 %&nbsp;for TNBC and 82%&nbsp;for non-TNBC groups, respectively (p-value = 0.05). These two groups had an overall survival rate (OS) of 72%&nbsp;and 92%, respectively (p-value = 0.05).</span></p> </div> <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusion</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: When compared to non-TNBC, TNBC was related to high-grade malignancies, worse disease-free survival , and overall survival (OS) rates. Understanding the molecular features of TNBC, clarifying its mechanism at the molecular level, interpreting the gene expression profiles of TNBC, and studying and creating new therapeutic targets should be the focus of future research. To enhance the prognosis of TNBC patients, try to find a focused and effective therapy.</span></p> </div> <div><strong><span lang="EN-US">Keywords:</span></strong></div> <div><span lang="EN-US"> Breast cancer; survival; triple-negative breast cancer.</span></div> Prasant Kumar Parida Subrat Kumar Samantara Sashibhusan Dash Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2310 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF SCALING AND ROOT PLANING WITH AND WITHOUT CHLORHEXIDINE CHIP AND DIODE LASER IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2287 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The motive of the present study is to comparatively measure the competence and effectiveness of diode laser and chlorhexidine chip as adjuncts to the scaling and root planing procedure, in patients with chronic periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the efficacy of diode laser and chlorhexidine chip before and after scaling and root planing in the management of chronic periodontitis. The objective is to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine chip and diode laser before and after scaling and root planning on clinical parameters.</p> <p><strong>Study and design: </strong>Randomized clinical trial with split mouth design done in the Department of Periodontics and Implantology.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Twenty chronic periodontitis patients having a probing pocket depth of 5mm-7mm on at least one interproximal site in each quadrant of the mouth were selected in the study. After initial treatment, four sites in each patient were randomly subjected to scaling and root planing (control), chlorhexidine chip application (CHX chip group), diode laser (810 nm) decontamination (Diode laser group) or combination of both (Diode laser and chip group). All subjects received a clinical periodontal examination by single examiner who recorded all the variables by manual procedure. Clinical parameters namely Plaque index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline, one month and three months. Results were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The differences in PPD reduction and CAL gain between control group and CHX chip and combination groups were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) at three months, whereas, the diode laser group did not show any significant difference from the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Within the limitations in the present study, the following conclusions were derived, i.e., chlorhexidine local delivery alone or in combination with diode laser decontamination is effective in improving oral hygiene, reducing gingival inflammation, reducing probing pocket depth and improving clinical attachment levels when used as adjuncts to scaling and root planing in non-surgical periodontal therapy of patients with chronic periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diode laser decontamination, Local drug delivery, Scaling and root planing.</p> Reya Shree Varun Dahiya Pradeep Shukla Prerna Kataria Mona Dagar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2287 ROLE OF USG IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ABDOMEN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2308 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The main goal of imaging in acute abdomen is to narrow down the differential diagnosis and for prompt treatment.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>This study was done on patient presented with acute abdomen in Department of Radiodiagnosis, SMS Medical College &amp; Associate Group of Hospitals, Jaipur. Scout X-ray done in 100 patients. Scout X –Ray film gives lots of information and very helpful in diagnosing perforation and intestinal obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> USG was able to diagnose 94% cases of perforation peritonitis. intes­tinal obstruction was diagnosed only in 73.17% of cases with USG.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study shows that simple X-Ray plays an important role in definite diagnosis of acute abdomen as compare to USG.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ultrasound, X- Ray, Acute Abdomen</p> Raghav Kumar Saroj Kumari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2308 A RARE CASE STUDY OF MEDULLARY CARCINOMA OF DESCENDING COLON REPORTED ON HISTOPATHOLOGY https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2285 <p>Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the colon is a rare and unique histologic subtype of colorectal cancer whichcharacterized by poor glandular differentiation and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate. This has now been incorporated as a separate entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of colorectal cancers.It is commonly associated with deficient mismatch repair proteins and has a strong association with Lynch syndrome. Diagnosis is challenging as it does not have the usual immunohistochemical stains on pathology seen in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we discuss an interesting case of MC of the colon that was metastatic on presentation and constituted a diagnostic challenge<sup>1</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>medullary carcinoma, colorectal carcinomas (CRC), medullary carcinoma of colon,poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated adenocarcinoma.</p> Rajvala Choudhary Chandrika Gupta Lakhami Chand Sinsinwar Sapna Shrivastava Sanjeev Singh Choudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2285 THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF COVID-19 PATIENTS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2303 <p><strong>Background</strong>: In this study, epidemiological profiles of COVID-19 patients who have visited the hospital have been evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We collected data of 100 patients from their medical records. These data included age, sex, comorbidities, levels of illness severity (mild, moderate, severe, and asymptomatic), signs and symptoms, treatment options, laboratory findings, and computed tomography (CT) images</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age were 61.23±12.36 years with age groups ranging from 17 to 85 years. Men were 69; M:F ratio being 2.26:1. There were 76 symptomatic and 24 asymptomatic patients. Mortality was higher in symptomatic patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Patients aged more than 60 years are more prone for severe disease with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia and this subset of patients requires urgent medical attention.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Age, Sex, COVID-19.</p> Sangeeta Gahlot Surendra Yadav Makkhan Lal Saini Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-21 2021-11-21 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2303 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FETAL ADRENAL GLAND BIOMETRY AND CERVICAL LENGTH AS A PREDICTOR OF PRETERM BIRTH https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2282 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Preterm birth is an important challenge in obstetrics and contemporary perinatology in India. Timely recognition, intervention and appropriate management is integral in curbing the upsurge in its incidence and consequent poor perinatal outcome. This study was conducted taking into account the potential mechanism of preterm labor: premature activation of the placental-adrenal endocrine axis wherein elevation of maternal cortisol leads to an increased production of placental corticotrophin releasing hormone which causes an increase in dehydroepiandrosterone produced by the fetal zone of the adrenal gland and its enlargement. This activates a cascade leading to early loss of uterine quiescence, consequently causing cervical modelling, ripening and preterm birth.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objectives:</strong> To assess fetal adrenal gland volume, fetal zone enlargement and cervical length on ultrasound and compare their&nbsp; efficacy in the prediction of preterm birth.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a hospital based prospective study in which pregnant women with an uncomplicated live singleton pregnancy between 28 to 34 weeks of gestation were subjected to obstetric ultrasonography wherein fetal adrenal gland volume, fetal zone enlargement and cervical length was measured. They were then followed up until their delivery, whether term or preterm and its correlation with fetal adrenal gland parameters and cervical length was assessed.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Corrected fetal adrenal gland volume showed the highest sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 96.7% with a cut off value of 632.50 mm3/kg while fetal zone enlargement showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7% and 60.9% respectively. Cervical length was found to be the least important marker for predicting the preterm birth as having the least AUC as 0.209, sensitivity as 36.4 % and specificity as 76.1%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concludes that fetal adrenal gland biometry can be used as a noninvasive, cost effective and potential new marker for the prediction of preterm birth and is a better predictor than cervical length.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Preterm, Cervical length, Adrenal biometry.</p> Toshi Jain Megha Agrawal Anju Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2282 A RARE CASE OF VALENTINO SYNDROME- CASE REPORT https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2301 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Valentino’s syndrome refers to acute abdomen with clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis in a Perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer. This occurs when suppurative fluid from duodenal perforation trickles down the paracolic gutter to the right iliac fossa causing peritonitis locally and causes periappendicitis. Less than 50 cases have been reported in literature of the same.</p> <p><strong>Case report and discussion:</strong> A 42-year-old male was admitted to the general surgery department with pain in the right iliac fossa and epigastric region. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed under the suspicion of Acute appendicitis, which was later converted to open laparotomy on finding a perforated duodenal ulcer.</p> <p><strong>Review of Literature</strong>: Valentino syndrome is a rare condition in which a duodenal ulcer mimics acute appendicitis which is a diagnosed intraoperatively and managed surgically.</p> <p>Although the exact incidence is unknown, less than 50 cases have been reported worldwide. The first incidence reports back to 1926 when an Italian actor, Rodolfo Valentino who succumbed to this rare disease and it was named after him.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Differential diagnosis of duodenal ulcer perforation should be considered for adult patient with diagnosis of acute appendicitis. X ray erect abdomen and diagnostic laparoscopy can help to overcome foot in mouth situation due to missed duodenal ulcer perforation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Valentino syndrome.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rohit K Phadnis Suditi Sharma Sai Lavanya Patnala Faiz Hussain Neha Chigulapalli Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-21 2021-11-21 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2301 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION OF SERUM FERRITIN LEVEL WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY AT SMS MEDICAL COLLEGE & ATTACHED GROUP OF HOSPITALS, JAIPUR https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2280 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study aimed to study the association of Serum Ferritin level with gestational diabetes mellitus</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> All Pregnant Females in Gestational age of 16 to 32 weeks presenting to the Ante natal clinic of Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur.&nbsp; Based on Oral Glucose tolerance test, study participants were divided into two groups, Pregnant female with Gestational Diabetes (GDM group) and Pregnant female without Gestational Diabetes (Controls)</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean ferritin level was significantly higher in GDM group (33.51 ng/ml)) as compared to control group (24.97 ng/ml). This difference in mean ferritin level among the two groups was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.001). This indicates that higher ferritin level is significantly associated with risk of GDM.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serum ferritin in this study had a significant correlation with development of GDM. High ferritin range was found in females with GDM. Routine use of monitoring of serum ferritin levels, during the antenatal visit in the mid trimester should be carried out, for early prediction of developing GDM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> GDM, Serum ferrtin, Metabolic conditions.</p> Priyanka Inaniya B S Meena Manju Sharma Mohan Lal Meena Rashma Gera Aparna Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2280 A STUDY TO ASSESS OCCURRENCE OF NON ALCOLOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE AND LIVER FIBROSIS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AND THE ASSOCIATED FACTORS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2298 <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the burden of NAFLD and severe fibrosis among DM population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a hospital based observational and cross-sectional study. Upgraded department of General Medicine, SMS Medical College andAttached Hospitals, (Jaipur).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 100 patients 48 patients did not have NAFLD while 52 patients had NAFLD. Thus proportion of NAFLD in diabetic patients was quite high (52%). Out of 52 NAFLD patients 27 patients (51.9%) had mild liver fibrosis, 14 patients (26.9%) had significant fibrosis and 11 patients (21.2%) had severe liver fibrosis. Thus proportion of NAFLD patients with significant and severe fibrosis was quite high (26.9% and 21.2%respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the study it can be concluded that the prevalence of NAFLD in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in department ofmedicine at S. M. S. Hospital, Jaipur is 52% and moderate and severe fibrosis is found in 26.9% and 21.2% patients respectively among them. BMI and the waist circumference are the factors in our study that have shown association with the incidence of NAFLD in type 2 DM patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> DM, NAFLD, BMI.</p> Pankaj Mangal Ashok Kumar Vedwal C L Nawal P D Meena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2298 ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN PATIENTS ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2276 <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Bowel obstruction is the most common intra-abdominal problem faced by general surgeons in their practice. Therefore better understanding of pathophysiology, improvement in diagnostic techniques, fluid and electrolyte correction, much potent antibiotics and knowledge of intensive care is required. present study was undertaken to study the management and post-operative complications of intestinal obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This is a prospective study of 97 cases presenting with symptoms and signs suggestive of acute intestinal obstruction. All patients are subjected to required preoperative biochemical investigations. Patients who showed reduction in abdominal distention and improvement in general condition especially in individuals with postoperative adhesions, a chance of conservative management was taken (by extending the supportive treatment) for further 12 to 24 hours; those who showed improvement by moving bowels, reduction in pain and tenderness was decided for conservative treatment, such individuals were excluded in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The occurrence of acute intestinal obstruction was common in male in comparison with female. The commonest presenting symptom was abdominal pain (100%) followed by vomiting (92.7%), distention of abdomen (87.6%) and absolute constipation (53.6%). In this study, Adhesive obstruction (56.7%) was the commonest cause of acute intestinal obstruction. Release of adhesions and bands was done in 43 cases. Resection and end-to-end anastomosis was done in 25 cases, which included cases of intussusceptions, adhesions, stricture, ileocaecal growth, colonic growth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most common etiological factor for intestinal obstruction is postoperative adhesions. Obstructed Inguinal Hernia is second most common cause of intestinal obstruction. Clinic radiological and operative findings put together can bring about the best and accurate diagnosis of intestinal obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Abdominal pain, Adhesions, Bands, Bowel obstruction, Inguinal Hernia,</p> Manish R. Malani Sangita Santosh Nimbalkar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-08 2021-11-08 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2276 TO DETERMINE THE SUCCESS RATE (CONCEPTION) AFTER TUBAL RECANALISATION DONE FOR STERILISATION REVERSAL IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, S.M.S MEDICAL COLLEGE & ASSOCIATED HOSPITALS, JAIPUR https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2296 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Female sterilization through tubal ligation is primarily used to permanently prevent a patient from having a spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy via <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro_fertilisation">in vitro</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro_fertilisation">fertilization</a>) in the future.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was a Descriptive type of observational study conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS medical collegeand associated hospitals, Jaipur.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 70 females who underwent recanalisation, 44 females conceived during the study period, giving a success rate of 62.9%. Morethan one-third females (37.1%) however did not conceive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sterilisation though intended to be permanent method of birth control, required reversal in many females, mostly due to death ofchildren. Recanalisation procedure being simple and effective method in respect to IVF is increasing in demand. During sterilisation, laparoscopic sterilisation should be preferred and isthmus should be preferred as site of occlusion as success of recanalisation is higher</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Female, sterilisation, laparoscopic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vandna B S Meena Mohan Lal Meena Aparna Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2296 TROPONIN T AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY: WHAT IS NORMAL? A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2271 <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">It is well established that cardiac biomarkers are universally raised post-cardiac surgery. This is due to various preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors. </span><span lang="EN-US">At present, no reliable tool or model considers intraoperative and postoperative factors to predict morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Troponin T as a single or serial measurement to predict postoperative mortality and morbidity, is an attractive diagnostic tool due to the direct relationship to myocardial damage and the availability of testing. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the expected release of troponin T post-cardiac surgery. From a diagnostic and prognostic point of view, troponin T testing could be beneficial in recognising high-risk patients and any imminent compilations early. Therefore, this review aims to assess the expected release profile and prognostic value of troponin T after cardiac surgery.</span></p> </div> <div><strong><span lang="EN-US">Keywords: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">troponin T</span><span lang="EN-US">., CABG, MPM, SAPS</span></div> jessy nellipudi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2271 TO FIND OUT ETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF INDORE https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2292 <p><strong>Background &amp; Method: </strong>Present Study was done with an aim to find out Etiology and clinical profile of patients of Acute Kidney Injury at Tertiary Care Centre of Indore. After taking institutional ethical clearance and written consent from the patients a cross sectional observational study was conducted on 100 Patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit of INDEX MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE who have clinical and / or biochemical evidence of acute kidney injury, detailed thorough history taking, general physical examination, systemic examination and routine and specific lab investigations, were done to find out the underlying etiology, clinical features and outcome of Acute Kidney Injury.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> This study includes various etiology of acute kidney injury in the current study. Most common cause being AGE (30%) followed by septicemia (16%) and poisoning (14%). In present study 75 % of cases were of Pre Renal AKI. Post Renal and Renal AKI was present in 13% and 12% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The variety of clinical features were recorded and studied, the most commonly observed clinical feature was oliguria closely followed by malaise and vomiting in acute kidney injury. Acute gastrointestinal infection was the most common cause of acute kidney injury. Other frequent causes were septicemia, poisoning, multi organ dysfunction syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Etiology, clinical &amp; Acute Kidney.</p> Kiran Meena Nikita Goyal Anjali Verma Rahul Mukhariya Divyesh Lad Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2292 A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE ABOUT THE DIABETES, AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2290 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study was conducted with the aim to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetes amongst population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hospital based study was conducted on DM patients attending the diabetes center, medicine OPD and medicine IPD within the study period were recruited in the study after taking written inform consent.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Regarding knowledge about complications of diabetes i.e.&nbsp; heart disease stated to be the highest in patients which was 201 (40.2%) followed by wound healing110(22.00%), eye disease 102(20.4%), peripheral neuropathy 96 (19.2%) and kidney diseases 92(18.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From our study it was concluded that Knowledge about what disease is, was good and regarding symptoms (frequent urination) was also good but complication(Heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye disease, peripheral neuropathy, wound healing) was poor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> DM, OPD, IPD.</p> Vipin Kumar Maya Pensiya V B Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2290 “COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECT ON DENTINAL TUBULE OCCLUSION BY THREE DIFFERENT DESENSITIZING DENTIFICES: A SEM STUDY” https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2288 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) occurs on exposed dentine and is dependent on the patency of dentinal tubules. This study compared the effectiveness of toothpaste containing Strontium Chloride, Novamine, Pro-Arginine in occluding dentine tubules along with comparision of those.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> 45 freshly extracted teeth were randomly divided (15 each) into 3 groups:</p> <p>Group 1 15 Teeth treated with toothpaste containing Strontium Chloride.</p> <p>Group 2 15 Teeth treated with toothpaste containing Novamine</p> <p>Group 3 15 Teeth treated with toothpaste containing Pro-Arginine.</p> <p>Each specimen was brushed with the dentifrice slurries and examined under SCM.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The mean of occluded dentinal tubules on the dentin surface after brushing with three dentifrices were significant among them Pro-arginine group showed maximum occlusion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present <em>in vitro </em>SEM study results revealed that: &nbsp;All the experimental agents– Strontium chloride, novamin, Pro- Argenine were effective in occluding dentinal tubules &amp; the percentage (%) of occluded tubules was found to be highest for Pro- Argenine as compared to the other groups.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>SCM, DH</p> Aman Mallick Gaurav Malhotra Pradeep Shukla Prerna Kataria C. S Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2288 IMAGING OF INTRACRANIAL SPACE OCCUPYING LESIONS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2309 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> With advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopy, it is now possible to differentiate between various intracranial lesions.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This prospective cohort study was conducted on 50 patients referred by various clinical departments with clinical suspicion of intracranial space occupying lesions, evaluated by computed tomography &amp; magnetic resonance imaging.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Solitary lesions were present in 35 patients (70%) &amp; multiple lesions in 15 patients (30%). 68.00% lesions were Supratentorial &amp; 32.00% infratentorial in location. Most common supratentorial location in adults was frontal lobe 40% followed by parietal lobe 30%. Most common supratentorial locations in children were frontal lobe. Infratentorially, cerebellum &amp; posterior fossa were found to be most common location in adults &amp; children respectively. Supratentorial lesions were most common both in adults &amp; children. 60% lesions were intraaxial &amp; 40 % extra axial in location. In adults, intraaxial lesions were more common than in children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intracranial space occupying lesions comprise of a diverse group of lesions. With the introduction of CT &amp; MRI scanning, imaging of lesions has acquired a new dimension whereby excellent anatomical detail in axial, sagittal &amp; coronal planes as well as lesion characterization has become possible.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Brain, CT, MRIs</p> Saroj Kumari Raghav Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2309 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERITONITIS ASSOCIATED HYPERLACTAMIA FOR EVALUATING MORTALITY IN SECONDARY PERITONITIS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2286 <p>Lactate levels are normally maintained at less than 1.5 mmol/L using a delicate balance between production and clearance (by liver and kidneys). Hyperlactemia has shown correlation with higher mortality. In our study on 30 indoor patients of perforation peritonitis in SMS medical college, Jaipur – we found that higher lactate level (&gt; 4) is associated with higher ventilator need (80%) and hence higher mortality (60%).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hyperlactemia.</p> Amit Jain Shubham Singhal Sanjeev Singh Choudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2286 TO STUDY THE COMPLICATIONS IN DENGUE LIKE ILLNESSES IN CHILDREN https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2304 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dengue has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, often with unpredictable clinical evolution and outcome. To study the complication of dengue like illness in children</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The hospital based study was conducted on patients presenting to paediatric hospital, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to complications, in dengue positive cases, bleeding was the most common complication seen in 51.00% cases while shock, myocarditis, and convulsion were present in 34.00%, 3.00% and 1.00% of cases respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It concluded that dengue hemorrhagic shock was most common complication.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dengue Like Illness, Complication, Shock.</p> Vimal Kumar Ashok Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-21 2021-11-21 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2304 FETAL ADRENAL GLAND BIOMETRY: A POTENTIAL PREDICTOR OF PRETERM BIRTH https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2283 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Preterm birth is an important challenge in obstetrics and contemporary perinatology in India. Timely recognition, intervention and appropriate management is integral in curbing the upsurge in its incidence and consequent poor perinatal outcome. This study was conducted taking into account the potential mechanism of preterm labor: premature activation of the placental-adrenal endocrine axis wherein elevation of maternal cortisol leads to an increased production of placental corticotrophin releasing hormone which causes an increase in dehydroepiandrosterone produced by the fetal zone of the adrenal gland and its enlargement. This activates a cascade leading to early loss of uterine quiescence, consequently causing cervical modelling, ripening and preterm birth.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objectives:</strong> To assess fetal adrenal gland volume and fetal zone enlargement on ultrasound and evaluate its efficacy in the prediction of preterm birth.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a hospital based prospective study in which pregnant women with an uncomplicated live singleton pregnancy between 28 to 34 weeks of gestation were subjected to obstetric ultrasonography wherein fetal adrenal gland volume and fetal zone enlargement was measured. They were then followed up until their delivery, whether term or preterm and its correlation with fetal adrenal gland parameters was assessed.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong>&nbsp;Corrected fetal adrenal gland volume showed the highest sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 96.7% with a cut off value of 632.50 mm3/kg while fetal zone enlargement showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7% and 60.9% respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concludes that fetal adrenal gland biometry can be used as a noninvasive, cost effective and potential new marker for the prediction of preterm birth.</p> Toshi Jain Megha Agrawal Anju Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2283 CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVEL WITH SEVERITY OF THE DISEASE IN COVID-19 PATIENTS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2302 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To find the levels of serum CRP in confirmed Covid-19 patients and to compare their levels in patients with mild to moderate disease and patients with severe disease who required ICU care for management.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A Cross sectional study was carried out on 100 confirmed cases of Covid-19, in whom Serum levels of Random sugar (RBS), Creatinine, Urea, C- reactive protein (CRP) were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The levels of serum Urea, Creatinine were significantly increased in group II when compared to group 1, and the levels of CRP were significantly increased with p value &lt;0.0001 in group IIwhen compared to group I.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Findings of our study suggest that determination of biochemical parameters like CRP at the time of hospitalization helps in predicting the severity of disease and need for ICU for better treatment management and prevention of adverse outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Covid-19, C- reactive protein, Intensive care unit.</p> Sangeeta Gahlot Surendra Yadav Makkhan Lal Saini Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-21 2021-11-21 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2302 THE DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF WOMEN WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2281 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study aimed to study the demographic profile women with gestational diabetes mellitus</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This hospital based cross-sectional study Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of patients was 27.68 ± 4.4 Yrs. Most of the study subjects in GDM group (54.7%) were Hindu. Study subjects in GDM group were almost equally from rural (50.7%).Most of the study subjects in both GDM group (88%) were housewives. Habit of smoking was found in only 6.7% females in GDM group. Habit of alcohol was found in 4% females in GDM group. Family history of diabetes was seen more in females with GDM (17.3%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that the socio demographic factors influence the occurrence of GDM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> GDM, Age, Gravida</p> Priyanka Inaniya B S Meena Mohan Lal Meena Aparna Sharma Shalini Rathore Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2281 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE THYROID FUNCTION IN SERO POSITIVE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2299 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The thyroid dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis is well-known but unfortunately there are only few studies available in our country to assess the thyroid function in RA patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a Hospital based observational, descriptive study . Upgraded department of General Medicine, SMS Medical College and AttachedHospitals, (Jaipur).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Maximum patients 208(80.00%) are euthyroid followed by 28(10.77%) are overt - hypothyroidism, 22(8.46%) subclinical hypothyroidism and 2 patients (0.77%) are subclinical hyperthyroidism patients</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in rheumatoid arthritis is high and associated with thyroid autoimmunity and suggested that allrheumatoid arthritis patients should go for thyroid functions. Hence, it is advisable to screen the patients of rheumatoid arthritis for thyroid dysfunction so that early identification and treatment can provide a healthier life ahead.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> NAFLD, TSH, T3, T4.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ashok Kumar Vedwal Pankaj Mangal P D Meena C L Nawal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2299 CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR AND COLPOSCOPIC FINDING WITH DIRECTED BIOPSY TO ASSESS THE ADVANTAGE OF CONCURRENT TESTING BY CYTOLOGY AND COLPOSCOPY IN THE DETECTION OF CERVICAL NEOPLASM https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2279 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cervical cancer was the second most common cancer among women 15-44 years of age and in 2018 it was the fourth most frequent cancer and cause of cancer death among all women in the world</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>Women (18-65 yrs) attending Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur were recruited for study. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria written and informed consent were taken from all study participants</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> On histopathology report we found that 10% had normal inflammation followed by 9.33% had carcinoma in situ, 8% had CIN-2, 6.67% had CIN-1, 5.67% had CIN-3 and Squamous cell carcinoma each.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Pap smear and colposcopy both the tests can be used to complement each other in a hospital based screening programme, where facilities for both modalities are available. Hence use of single visit approach in which cytology, colposcopy and guided biopsy all are done in single sitting, and treated accordingly in resource poor countries like ours will enable maximal utilization of scarce medical resources.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pap smear, CIN, Cervical cancer</p> Diksha Kumari Chittara Suman Mendiratta Anil Gurjar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2279 TO DETERMINE THE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSFUL RECANALISATION DONE FOR STERILISATION REVERSAL IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, S.M.S MEDICAL COLLEGE & ASSOCIATED HOSPITALS, JAIPUR https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2297 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Female sterilization through tubal ligation is primarily used to permanently prevent a patient from having a spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy via <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro_fertilisation">in vitro</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro_fertilisation">fertilization</a>) in the future.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was a Descriptive type of observational study conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS medical collegeand associated hospitals, Jaipur.</p> <h2>Results: Conception rate after tubal recanalisation was more in females with parity 3 (70.6%) as compared to females with parity 2 (55.6%). Thisdifference in success rate of tubal recanalisation in relation to parity was however not found to be statistically significant</h2> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The age of the patient, type of sterilization performed and final length of tube had significant impact on the outcome. This could indicate towards proper patient selection and microsurgical skills of surgeons for higher success rate of reversal.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Female, sterilisation, laparoscopic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vandna Uravashi B S Meena Shalini Rathore Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2297 AN UPDATED GUIDELINES ON POST-OPERATIVE WOUND MANAGEMENT https://ijmbs.info/index.php/ijmbs/article/view/2274 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: management and prevention of wounds after a surgical procedure, are important and debatable topics. Optimal adoption of guidelines for proper prevention and management of post-surgical wounds must be carried out by any surgeon or institute. Postoperative wound care is done by cleaning and dressing the wounds after the surgical procedure, preventing them from getting contaminated with the external surfaces or the microorganisms on the patient’s body. Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is the infection associated with healthcare in which the infection occurs in the wound after an invasive surgical procedure. A minimum of 5% of the patients who undergo surgical procedures will develop surgical site infections. This study draws the attention of the clinicians to a proper set of guidelines for post-operative care to minimize post-operative complications.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: this study is a Retrospective Cohort design. The study was considered 92 patients who had various types of surgery from during the period of 10 months. The patients who had intra-abdominal surgery are only included. The study divided 92 patients into 2 groups. In each group, 46 patients were assigned based on following NICE guidelines on postoperative wound management. Patients, for whom the NICE guidelines were followed properly at every aspect, were assigned to the first group (Group 1). Otherwise, the patients were assigned to the second group (Group 2). The study adopted a list comprising of NICE guidelines which are applicable to this study. The study assessment was done by observing the appearance of Surgical Site Infection among the patients, 3 to 7 days post-surgery.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> it as found that 91.30% of the Group 1 patients showed significant improvement in terms of resolution while only 13.04% of the patients in improved significant without any surgical site infection (SSI).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> the study results show that the patients who were given post-operative care according to NICE guidelines had much lesser Surgical Site Infection (SSI) as compared to those who were not given post-operative care according to NICE guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> surgical site infection, postoperative care, nice guidelines, wound management</p> Sangita Santosh Nimbalkar Manish R. Malani Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-08 2021-11-08 5 11 10.32553/ijmbs.v5i11.2274