International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijmbseditor/nlm.jpg">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijmbseditor/ICMJE_newsitem-e1514876485808.jpg" width="224" height="140">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijmbseditor/icv1.jpg" width="204" height="136"></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong><a title="|| Pub-Med NLM ID (URL) ||" href="" target="_blank" rel="alternate noopener noreferrer">|| Pub-Med NLM ID (URL) ||</a></strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<strong><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;ICMJE (URL)||</a></strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <strong><a title="Index Copernicus Value 2017: 40.03" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp; &nbsp;||ICV&nbsp;(URL)||&nbsp;</a></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. 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Preferential COX-2 inhibitors named diclofenac and Selective COX-2 inhibitor named etoricoxib was taken for my present work and anti inflammatory effect was compared with control and with each other. Student-t-test-was done to compare result. It was found that inflammation varied significantly across the three groups (P=.000) Compared to control, inflammation was less in both diclofenac and etoricoxib (P=.00). Reduction of inflammation with diclofenac was less, in comparison to etoricoxib at end. Etoricoxib is more efficacious than diclofenac.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Etoricoxib, Diclofenac, Anti inflammatory effect.</p> Amit Kumar Jha Raj Ranjan Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1037 THYROID HORMONE THERAPY AND TREATMENT FOR WOMEN’S ABOVE 30 YEAR OLD WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM <p>Thyroid hormones impact every single significant organ/frameworks and sufficient levels are significant for ideal capacity. Thyroid brokenness is a typical condition that effects somewhere in the range of 3 and 21% of the populace with predominance being increasingly regular in ladies and in more established people. Hypothyroidism is characterized by the expansion in thyroid-animating hormone (TSH) values, joined by diminished coursing free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). TSH is the most solid marker of sufficiency of substitution treatment, and an incentive inside the reference run (0.4–4.0 mIU/L) ought to be viewed as the helpful objective" have serum TSH esteems somewhere in the range of 0.4 and 2.5 mU/L. It is thusly contended that TSH esteems &gt; 2.5 mU/L reflect hidden immune system thyroid ailment and add to the slanted TSH dissemination bend, a view additionally bolstered by the way that such people have a higher danger of movement to ensuing hypothyroidism. In this way, side effects of hypothyroidism are inadequate and vague in more established individuals. This prompts thyroid capacity tests being as often as possible mentioned. Then again, high thyroid capacity, as confirm by a low TSH level needs cautious observing and treatment considered if there is proof of end-organ harm, (for example, osteoporosis or AF), or if serum TSH is stifled.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> TSH, Thyroid hormones, Hypothyroidism, FT4.</p> N Rawat S Saxena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1014 A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PRANAYAMA AND BREATHING EXCERCISES <p>Yoga is an ancient system of self-development through which union occurring between the mind, body and spirit. Yoga is a science and is immensely useful for promoting total health, which may assist in achieving recommended levels of physical activity for some individuals. Type of sampling was simple random sampling, consist of 60 obese women. Group A consisted of 30 and Group B consisted of 30.&nbsp; A written informed consent was taken from all the subjects. Purpose of the study and procedure were explained to the subjects. Subjects in the age group of 35 to 45 were included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n=30) and Group B (n=30). All the values obtained before and after performing Pranayama, and breathing exercises were expressed as mean ± SD. The data were analyzed by SPSS 32.0 version one way ANOVA followed by student’s&nbsp;&nbsp; t test&nbsp;&nbsp; which&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; was used to compare pre and post training results. P values of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant difference between the compared values.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Yoga;<strong> Pranayama; </strong>Breathing Excercises; t test.</p> S. P. Quadri P. Bairwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1015 DO WE NEED ETHICS? – II MBBS STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS IN LEARNING MEDICAL ETHICS. <p><strong>Back ground: </strong>An Indian Medical Graduate is expected to have knowledge &amp; acquire competencies during his formal medical course, but an understanding of professional values and ethical conduct is essential for fostering the development of a good doctor.The two major aspects of teaching medical ethics include explicit teaching of cognitive base and stage appropriate opportunities for experiential learning and reflection throughout the curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>It is a classroom based intervention study involving 150 second MBBS students. Self administered, semi-structured questionnaire was devised for this study. The questionnaire consisted of two parts- students perception towards learning medical ethics and their perception on statements of ethical issues which was graded on a 5 point Likert scale. An interactive lecture was done followed by which students were divided into 6 groups and case based discussions were done. Finally reflective narration was done.Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info Software. Results were expressed in mean, standard deviation and paired ‘t’ test was done.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean pre-test &amp; post-test score of the students towards learning medical ethics in current curriculum were 2.86 and 3.98 respectively. The mean pre-test and post-test score of students regarding statements on ethical issues were 2.82 &amp; 3.92 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medical ethics is one of the neglected topics in healthcare. To strengthen ethical reasoning and judgment in decision making, we need to expose students to various ethical scenarios based on which debates, seminars, interactive workshops can be conducted utilizing the work experience of multidisciplinary medical expertise.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Medical ethics, Medical practice, Students</p> Anupriya A Priya Banthavi S Kamala E Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P Prabhusaran N ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1016 PREVALENCE OF HYPOTHYROIDISM, DELAYED PUBERTY AND DIABETES MELLITUS IN PATIENTS OF Β-THALASSEMIA MAJOR <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Beta-Thalassemia is a genetic disorder which is associated with a lot of complications. Frequent blood transfusions result in increased iron deposition in various tissues leading to dysfunction of many vital organs. Endocrine disorders constitute a major part of such complications increasing the morbidity of thalassemia manifold in the affected patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp; This is a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in 100 diagnosed patients of beta- thalassemia major who had visited the OPD/IPD of Subharti Medical College &amp; affiliated Hospitals, Meerut for routine blood transfusion or for any other complication. Patients were clinically examined and investigated for presence of one or more endocrine disorders on their routine appointments.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Endocrine disorders were detected in a total of 82 patients. Diabetes mellitus was detected in 12% patients, hypothyroidism in 36% patients and delayed puberty was found in 72% patients. Mean serum ferritin level was found to be 5831.0±2860.5 ng/ml in beta-thalassemia Major patients, while it was in normal range in control subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Research concluded with finding of Delayed puberty (72%), Hypothyroidism (36%) and diabetes mellitus as (12%) in beta thalassemia patients who were on regular blood transfusion therapy.&nbsp; Iron overload as serum ferritin level was found to be highly raised in all study case. On the basis of our study we recommend that early detection and management protocols for these endocrinopathies may improve the life prospects of beta-thalassemia Major patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Endocrine disorders, Hypothyroidism, Delayed puberty, Diabetes Mellitus Serum ferritin, Thalassemia Major.</p> Naresh Manne Bharat Kumar Gupta Sandeep Kumar Yadav Saurabh Singhal Archana Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1017 USE OF AVERSION THERAPY IN DISSOCIATIVE PSEUDO-SEIZURE PATIENTS <p>Background: psychological methods are less commonly used in treatment of psychiatric illnesses in hospital setup. In some psychiatric illnesses drug use has limiting effect in full cure of illness due to psychosocial dynamics associated with those illnesses.</p> <p>Aim: In dissociative conversion disorder one theory states that primary gain is conversion of mental or emotional feeling into physical symptoms and secondary gain is any other external benefit from physical symptom occurred in primary gain. Like in a disturbed marital conflict wife develops episodic unresponsiveness (pseudo seizures) as primary gain and revived attention and care of husband due to this episodic unresponsiveness (pseudo seizures) as secondary gain. It is hypothesized that dissociative conversion reaction develops and become resistant by getting these two primary and secondary gains. Our study aim at providing unpleasant mild aversive electric current to the subjects along with standard pharmacotherapy to make patient condition to this painful stimulus and end their maladaptive behavior.&nbsp;</p> <p>Material and Methods: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 was used for making diagnosis and Dissociative Experiences Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) for evaluating the response of treatment. Mild electric current (30 mili columb) was used in test group along with standard treatment group.</p> <p>Results: In test group improvement in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and number of episodes of unresponsiveness was better.</p> <p>Conclusion: Use of mild electric current as aversive stimulus as compared to standard treatment group was found more affective mode of treatment</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>dissociative, conversion, aversion therapy, pseudo seizures, electric current</p> Rakesh Kumar Paswan Siddharth Aswal Brajesh Pushp Yogesh Motwani Indra Pal Salvi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1018 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PATTERN OF SOFT TISSUE TUMORS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH INDIA: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY <p>Background: Soft tissue tumors are a diverse group of lesions arising from the supporting soft tissue of the body. Though pathologically diverse, they frequently exhibit similar clinical presentations and radiological features. Correct histopathological diagnosis is therefore crucial for further management.&nbsp;</p> <p>Aim/Objectives: To evaluate the spectrum of benign as well as malignant soft tissue tumors in a tertiary care centre in North India.</p> <p>Material and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Pathology from April 2017 to March 2018. All cases of soft tissue tumors in this period were included in the study. Gross findings were recorded from Histopathology request forms. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain were reviewed and findings recorded.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results<strong>: </strong>Majority of patients were males with maximum cases in the 4<sup>th</sup> decade. Of all soft tissue tumors, 90.4% were benign, 4.0 % intermediate and 5.6% were malignant. Benign Adipocytic tumors (48.0%) were the commonest soft tissue tumors, followed by benign vascular tumors (24.0%). Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma was the commonest malignant neoplasm in our study (42.8 %).</p> <p>Conclusions: Soft tumors pose diagnostic challenges because of confounding morphological characteristics. The incidence of benign tumors (90.4%) was much higher than malignant tumors in our study with benign lipomatous tumors (48.0%) being most common tumors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Histopathology; Tumors; Lipomatous; Malignant</p> Poonam Sharma Manik Mahajan Rajat Gupta Subhash Bharadwaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1019 ROLE OF IMAGING IN PRIMARY AMENORRHEA- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY. <p>Background: Amenorrhea is the sixth major cause of&nbsp;<a href="">female infertility</a>&nbsp;affecting 2–5% of women in reproductive age. Primary amenorrhea&nbsp;affects 2–5% of adolescent girls. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent complications and social consequences.&nbsp; Imaging plays a vital role in etiology of primary amenorrhea.&nbsp; Ultrasound is the first line investigation while Magnetic resonance imaging is important for accurate diagnosis and surgical planning.</p> <p>Aim and Objective: Determine etiology of primary amenorrhea in Kashmiri tertiary care centre and assess role of imaging (USG, CT, MRI) in determining its etiology.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study done by departments of Gynaecology and Obstetrics and Radiodiagnosis and Imaging done in SKIMS hospital from Febuary to December 2019. 46 adolescent girls with primary complain of primary amenorrhea visited hospital’s out patient department.</p> <p>Results: Eugonadism was the most common cause of primary amenorrhea in our study accounting for 60.8% cases followed by Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 28.2% cases and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in 10.8% cases. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome was the most common cause of primary amenorrhea accounting for 21.7% cases followed by constitutional delay in 17.3% cases and polycystic ovarian disease in 13% cases.</p> <p>Radiological investigations primarily ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were directly or indirectly involved in diagnosing 65.5% cases of primary amenorrhea. Radiological Imaging was least useful in patients with constitutional delay.</p> <p>Conclusion: Radiology should be the first referral department in primary amenorrhea patients. Imaging is helpful in identifying cause of primary amenorrhea in majority of patients. Other modalities like karyotyping, laboratory investigations, clinical examination etc are helpful as well in addition to imaging.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Primary Amenorrhea, ultrasound(USG), Magnetic resonance Imaging(MRI), Computerized tomography(CT), Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH).</p> Sheema Posh Suhail Rafiq Iqbal Bashir Rassieq Aslam Aijaz Hakeem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1020 PROFILE OF GASTRIC MALIGNANCIES PRESENTING AS GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION – A ONE AND A HALF YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM KASHMIR VALLEY <p>Background: Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the frequent cancers seen in Kashmir valley. Patients often present with advanced disease and Gastric Outlet obstruction (GOO). We studied the profile and management of patients presenting with malignant GOO due to Gastric cancer at our center.</p> <p>Methods: A prospective one and half year study from May 2018 to Dec 2019 was done in the Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Government Medical College, Srinagar. All adult patients with clinical and endoscopic evidence of malignant gastric outlet obstruction and features of gastric cancer were included.</p> <p>Results: Twenty three patients with GOO due to Gastric malignancies were noted in this period with a M:F ratio of 1.9:1 and age range of 32 to 79 years. Vomiting was the most common symptom present in 83 % patients followed by early satiety which was present in 74% of cases. Though patients gave history suggestive of weight loss but only 17 % patients had a documented weight loss. Palliative gastrojejunostomy was done in 21 patients and Radical Distal gastrectomy was done in 2 patients. Surgical site infection was the most common (06 cases; 26%) complication in our group followed by delayed gastric emptying (04 cases; 17.4%) and pulmonary complications (03 cases; 13%).</p> <p>Conclusion: Gastrojejunostomy offers good palliation of symptoms in patients with GOO due to GC. It can be offered with equally good results by laparoscopic access.</p> Nisar Hussain Hamdani Sumyra Khurshid Qadri Zeeshan A Wani Syed Asif A Shah Sonaullah Kuchay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1008 COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE TUBE AGGLUTINATION AND SEMIQUANTITATIVE SLIDE AGGLUTINATION TEST FOR DIAGNOSING OF THE SUSPECTED CASES OF ENTERIC FEVER <p>Introduction: Enteric fever is the major health problem of developing country like India, with a notable morbidity and mortality. Isolation of Salmonella the causative agent from Blood is the standard laboratory method for diagnosis, but it is not available at PHC level. So, rapid and affordable diagnostic test like Widal tube and slide agglutination test are used. The present study was done to comparatively evaluate the Widal slide agglutination and tube agglutination test in detecting enteric fever.</p> <p>Methods: A total of 500 patients with clinical presentation suggestive of enteric fever were included in the study whose venous blood was collected. All the samples were tested for the presence of anti O and anti H agglutinins against S. typhi and S. paratyphi A by semi quantitative slide and quantitative tube agglutination tests as per standard protocols. The titers of 1:80 (O agglutinins) and 1:160 (H agglutinins) were taken as the significant titer for the diagnosis of enteric fever.</p> <p>Results: Out of 500 collected samples, 183 (36.6%) was positive by slide agglutination test, whereas, only 145 (29%) were positive by tube agglutination method. The slide test had a sensitivity of 97.2%, specificity of 88.1%, positive predictive value of 77% and negative predictive value of 98.7% as compared to Widal tube agglutination test.</p> <p>Conclusions: Due to high false positivity shown by slide test, it is suggested that serological diagnosis should not be made solely on the basis of slide test rather its results should be confirmed by using Widal tube agglutination test.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Enteric fever, Slide agglutination test, Widal tube agglutination test, Sensitivity, Specificity</p> Shubhdeep Kaur Harsh Yadav Umed Singh Mona Narain Mayank Bhardwaj Pushpendra Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1021 TO ASSESS THE OUTCOME OF PATIENTS FOR DAY CARE SURGERY <p>Background: Day care surgery offers advantages for health care delivery system around the world and so rates have steadily increased in both developed and developing countries.</p> <p>Methods: Day care surgery offers advantages for health care delivery system around the world and so rates have steadily increased in both developed and developing countries.</p> <p>Results: <strong>O</strong>ut of 155 patients 89 (57.4%) had an operative time of 00-30 minutes, 64 (41.3%) had an operative time of 30- 60 minutes, 2 (1.3%) had an operative time of 60-90 minutes and none took more than 90 minutes. Two Patients having an operative time period of 60-90 minutes included laparoscopic procedures converted to open cholecystectomies.</p> <p>Conclusion: This study clearly shows that day care surgery is feasible and safe.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Outcome, day care surgery, Post-operative</p> Vishal Prashar Shamsher Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1022 PREVALENCE OF BOMBAY BLOOD GROUP AMONGST THE HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN WESTERN RAJASTHAN, INDIA <p>Introduction: The prevalence of Bombay (Oh Phenotype) is not precisely known in Rajasthan state. Because of the fact that Bombay blood group is clinically significant, we decided to conduct a study at our centre to determine the prevalence of Bombay blood group among blood donor population in Western Rajasthan.</p> <p>Methodology: This blood bank based prospective study was carried out amongst the blood donors over a period of 11 months, i.e., from February 2019 to December 2019. Total 30,000 donor samples were screened for ABO-RhD blood grouping and antibody screening. Auto control, indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and Bombay blood group (Anti-H lectin) tests were run on all the O blood group samples showing agglutination with O reagent cells (in reverse grouping). Donors negative on Anti-H testing were tested for saliva A, B and H antigens and interpreted.</p> <p>Results: Out of the total 30,000 donors, the maximum number of donors had blood group B+ (32.76%), followed by O+ (29.9%), A+ (20.41%), AB+ (8.06%), B- (3.11), O- (3.02%), A- (1.93%) and AB- (0.8%). Prevalence of Bombay blood group among study population was calculated to be 0.003%.</p> <p>Conclusion: Bombay phenotype is a rare blood group but not uncommon. If serum grouping is not performed, it is misdiagnosed as blood group O. Therefore both forward and reverse blood grouping should be done on 100% samples.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bombay, Anti-H lectin, Serum grouping, Blood donors.</p> Kaluram Meghwal N.L. Mahawar Dev Raj Arya Arun Bharti Shailendra Vashistha Sonam Alha Ravindra Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1023 EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ROSACEA USING DERMATOLOGY LIFE QUALITY INDEX (DLQI) AND THE HOSPITAL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALE (HADS) <p>Introduction: Rosacea is a chronic skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a significant impact on quality of life.</p> <p>Objective: To evaluate the quality of life, depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea.</p> <p>Material and Methods- Seventy-three patients, aged 18 years or above, with a clinical diagnosis of rosacea were included in the study. All patients completed a Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire and a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) quessionaire.</p> <p>Results: The mean DLQI score of patients was 7.98 ± 5.86 which signified a moderate impact on quality of life. The mean HADS-A (anxiety) score was 4.83 ± 4.42, while the mean HADS-D (depression) score was 5.22 ± 4.04. Thirteen (17.81%) patients had anxiety HADS-A (≥11 points) while 11 (15.07%) patients had depression HADS-D (≥11 points). Total DLQI score of patients with rosacea correlated positively with anxiety (r&nbsp;= 0.67, p&nbsp;value- &lt;0.001) and depression (r = 0.49, p value- &lt;0.001)</p> <p>Conclusion: Rosacea is a distressing disease which has a moderate impact on patient’s QOL. Dermatologists must always be vigilant of the psychosocial aspects of rosacea and should opt for the self-perception of rosacea by patients while prescribing a treatment regimen.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Rosacea, dermatology life quality index, DLQI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS</p> Alpana Mohta Asha Nyati Aditi Agrawal Suresh Kumar Jain Ramesh Kumar Kushwaha Umesh Gautam Pritee Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.979 PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO ANALYZE CALCIUM CREATININE RATIO IN A SPOT SAMPLE OF URINE FOR EARLY PREDICTION OF HYPERTENSIVE DISORDER IN PREGNANCY <p>Hypertension in pregnancy is a big threat to the mother as well as the fetus. Predi³³ction of preeclampsia with reasonable accuracy is one of the essential prerequisites for its prevention. Various biological markers are available for the prediction of preeclampsia but none of those is reasonably reliable, valid and economical. In this present study, the predictive value of the urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (CCR) for the prediction of preeclampsia was studied. This study was conducted at department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir T Hospital, Government Medical college, Bhavnagar. 500 Primigravida patients attending the antenatal outpatient department at Sir T Hospital between 18 to 24 weeks of gestation were registered in this study.&nbsp; Single voided urine sample was collected from all the patients in calcium free vial for estimation of urine calcium and creatinine. After initial workup, all patients were followed in the antenatal clinic till the time of delivery and 15 days post partum. The number of patients who develop the hypertensive disorder in pregnancy was noted and the correlation studied. Out of 500 patients, 120 patients (24%)developed preeclampsia,4 patients(0.8%)developed eclampsia,10 patients (2%) developed gestational hypertension. Out of 500 patients, 84 patients (16.8%) showed UCCR&lt;0.04.The remaining 416 patients (83.2%) showed UCCR&gt;0.04. Out of 84 patients with UCCR&lt;0.04, 2 patients (2.38%) developed Gestational Hypertension. : A single estimation of calcium to creatinine ratio in asymptomatic pregnant women between 18-24 week of gestation is a simple and cost-effective test. A value of less than or equal to 0.04, in a spot urine sample, has a good predictive value for preeclampsia</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Calcium creatinine ratio, Gestational hypertension, Preeclampsia, Preeclampsia prediction</p> Kuntal B Prajapati Kanaklata D. Nakum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-11 2020-03-11 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1027 PREVALENCE OF BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS OTHER THAN ABO-RhD IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN WESTERN RAJASTHAN, INDIA <p>Introduction: It is important to know the frequencies of the various antigens to predict the availability of blood units for alloimmunized patients. Because of the fact that there is always a chance of diversity in phenotype pattern of a donor population, we decided to conduct a study on antigen phenotyping of regular blood donors.</p> <p>Methodology: This blood bank based cross-sectional analytical study was carried out amongst 500 voluntary blood donors over a period of 8 months, i.e., from April, 2019 to November, 2019. Samples from all these donors were subjected to extended phenotyping (C, c, E, e, K, M, N, S, Jka, Jkb, Fya, Fyb, Lea and Leb).</p> <p>Results: In present study, we observed the percentage frequencies of C, c, E, e, K, M, N, S, P1, Lea, Leb, Jka, Jkb, Fya and Fyb antigens as 75.6%, 53.2%, 18.4%, 97.75%, 3.8%, 82.4%, 58.4%, 43.8%, 66.2%, 16.8%, 52.6%, 80.0%, 67.6%, 79.4% and 54.6% respectively. Conclusion: Outcomes of such studies can be used to formulate a rare blood group donor registry and compatible blood can be provided to the patients (especially those requiring multiple transfusions).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antigens, Phenotyping, Blood donors.</p> Ravindra Kumar Yadav Dev Raj Arya N.L. Mahawar Arun Bharti Shailendra Vashistha Sonam Alha Kaluram Meghwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-11 2020-03-11 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1028 DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SALIVARY GLAND SWELLING <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Salivary glands, major and minor, comprise a complex anatomic and physiologic “organ” system-producing enzyme, lubrication, mixing agent and immune factors. Salivary gland swellings can be broadly classified into inflammatory, non- inflammatory and neoplastic swellings like calculi, benign tumours such as pleomorphic adenoma, oncocytoma, warthin’s tumour or malignant tumours like adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma.&nbsp; Connective tissue diseases like haemangioma, lymphangia, neurofibroma&nbsp; and&nbsp; other auto immune diseases like Sjogren’s syndrome, Mikulicz disease etc. Appropriate therapeutic management may be planned earlier, whether it is local excision for a benign neoplasm, radical surgery for a malignant one or any other alternate treatment. With non-neoplastic lesions, metastasis and lymph proliferative disorders, conservative management, chemotherapy or radiotherapy might be respectively preferable.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>40 cases of salivary gland swelling are studied, which were analyzed and conclusion drawn. The statistics have been compared with different standard studies conducted on same subject by various authors around world. Associated medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension and anemia were managed and controlled before surgery with the patient’s advice. As a part of general work up of surgery in all patients, hemoglobin level, bleeding time, clotting time, urine, sugar albumin, microscopy, chest screening, ECG, Blood urea, serum Creatinine, RBS was estimated. Specific investigations like FNAC, X-rays of Mandible were done for all patients in the study group. Demographic profile of all the study population was recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Age of the patients varied from 9 years to 80 years. Average age&nbsp;&nbsp; of the patient was 40.6 years. The case of lowest age group i.e., 9 years was of non-inflammatory swelling&nbsp;&nbsp; and the case of highest age i.e., 80 years was of tumor swelling. Out of 40 cases 15(35%) cases was of male and 25(65%) cases of female. In this study, all cases presented with, symptoms of swelling (100%), 65% (26) presented with pain. 55 % (22) presented with tenderness. Three cases were with deep lobe involvement (11.4%), 19 cases of ear lobe elevation (47.5%). Facial nerve paralysis occurred in one case (2.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Diagnosis of the salivary gland tumors must be considered in any patient presenting with salivary gland swelling. Salivary gland swelling occur more commonly in 3<sup>rd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> decades of life and seen most common in females.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: salivary gland, tumour, benign, malignant</p> Akshay Akulwar Akshay Bavikatte ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1034 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLONIDINE VERSUS NALBUPHINE AS INTRATHECAL ADJUVANTS TO 0.5% HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE DURING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES – A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND INTERVENTIONAL STUDY. <p>Background: Regional anesthesia techniques for gynecological procedures are on increasing trends due to their advantage of postoperative analgesia owing to intrathecal adjuvants. The present study was aimed to comparatively evaluate the clinical efficacy of clonidine with nalbuphine when co-administered intrathecally with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for Lower abdominal surgeries in Gynecology.</p> <p>Methods: With institutional ethics committee clearance No. 193MC/EC/2018, randomized, double blind study was conducted. After obtaining informed written consent total of 84 patients scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were randomly allocated into two groups:</p> <p>Group A (n=42) - Inj. &nbsp;3.5 ml Bupivacaine 0.5% + 0.2 ml Clonidine(30µg) intrathecally.&nbsp;</p> <p>Group B (n=42) - Inj.3.5 ml Bupivacaine 0.5%+0.2 ml Nalbuphine(2mg) intrathecally.</p> <p>The characteristics of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic data, side effects were recorded.</p> <p>Results: The onset of sensory block was earlier in Group B than Group A (3.08±0.52 min vs 4.00±0.54 min, p&lt;0.001 ). The onset of motor block was also earlier in Group B than Group A (7.78±0.80 min vs 8.80±0.95min, p&lt;0.001). The time to first rescue analgesia in patients receiving intrathecal clonidine was significantly delayed than patients receiving intrathecal nalbuphine (284.95 ± 12.93 min vs 211.52 ± 15.92 min, p&lt;0.001). Introperative hemodynamic changes were comparable and none of the patient suffered from respiratory depression except very little cases of shivering which are not significant.</p> <p>Conclusions: Intrathecal clonidine as adjuvant to bupivacaine provided was clinically more effective than nalbuphine for prolonging the duration of analgesia for gynecological procedures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bupivacaine, Clonidine, Lower abdominal surgeries in gynecology, Nalbuphine, Subarachnoid block.</p> Trishala Jain Jaipal . ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1004 THE COMPARISON OF ETOMIDATE AND PROPOFOL FOR ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO INDUCTION AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION <p><strong>Background</strong>: This study is designed to compare the degree of attenuation of hemodynamic response to induction, laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation of etomidate with those of propofol in patients undergoing noncardiac surgical procedures<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: &nbsp;The present study conducted in Non Cardiac Surgeries in the Department of Anaesthesiology, Jhalawar Medical College &amp; Associated Hospitals, Jhalawar, Rajasthan.After institutional ethical committee’s approval and written informed consent from the patient’s attendant in the format as per proforma, the present study was conducted on 60&nbsp; patients of ASA Grade I and II of either sex, aged 18 to 60 years, scheduled for a variety of non-cardiac surgical procedures requiring general anaesthesia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of the study suggest that use of etomidate as inducing agent provides more hemodynamic stability as compared to propofol and can be preffered in patients prone to hemodynamic instability, cardiovascular abnormalities, hypovolemia, prone to renal failure due to hypotension. Propofol may be preffered for induction where hypertension is contraindicated or hypotension is preffered and myoclonus is to be avoided.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Etomidate provides a more stable hemodynamics during general anesthesia as compared to propofol.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:-</strong> Etomidate, Propofol, Hemodynamic.</p> Virendra Singh Rathore Suresh Pandey S.P. Chittora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-15 2020-03-15 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1036 EVALUATION OF CLINICAL AWARENESS OF LOOSENESS OF A NEWLY FABRICATED COMPLETE DENTURE AND ITS MANAGEMENT AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS IN A DENTAL COLLEGE OF IMPHAL (NORTH- EAST): A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>For the patient’s dissatisfaction with the prosthesis, dentist must realize that a patient’s judgment of the treatment outcome is what defines prosthodontic success. All patient’s need is to have a denture which is firm and stable during function. An ill-fitting denture not only brings frustration to the patients but to the dentists as well. So all probable reasons for the looseness of complete denture should be evaluated by the dentist and hence every possible attempt should be made by the dentist to correct it.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Obectives: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of looseness of newly fabricated complete denture and its management among dental students of third year, final year and internship, studying in an undergraduate dental college, in the Imphal city of Manipur. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the complete knowledge of complete denture fabrication and their practical implementation in the complete denture fabricational procedure.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving the dental students of 3<sup>rd</sup>, 4<sup>th </sup>year and the students doing internship in the Department of Prosthodontics and Crown &amp; Bridge at RIMS, Dental college. Total of 150 students participated in the study. Participants were distributed in three groups having 50 students each from 3<sup>rd</sup> year, 4<sup>th</sup> year, and students doing internship. All the&nbsp; participants signed an informed consent before filling the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics included computation of frequencies and percentages. Nonparametric test, namely, chi-square test, was used for further data analysis; p-value &lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant and vice versa.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>. Among all 150 participants who were subjected to self-administered questionnaire, seventy eight (78) subjects (52%) reported that looseness was because of improper secondary impression. Eight (08) subjects (05.33% ) reported that looseness was because of under extension of the green stick compound for peripheral tracing. Three (03) subjects (02%) reported that looseness was because of the overextension of the flanges in peripheral tracing or border moulding. Fifty eight (58) subjects (38.66%) reported that looseness of the newly fabricated complete denture was because of improper posterior palatal seal area record. Three (03) subject (2%) reported that they were unaware of the reasons for the looseness of newly fabricated complete denture.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The majority of the students of dental college have limited knowledge of the exact reason for the looseness of newly fabricated complete denture on the day of denture delivery. Students faced problem in its management in dental clinics. The looseness of a newly fabricated complete denture was because of the overextensions of the denture flanges as evaluated by Prosthodontist. Students of dental college should be made aware for the all the probable reasons for looseness of a newly fabricated complete denture. In 90% of the cases it is seen that overextension of the flanges is the most probable reason for an ill fitting, newly fabricated complete denture.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Complete Denture, Ill fitting denture, Peripheral tracing, Denture Flanges, Secondary Impression, Posterior Palatal Seal.</p> Arunoday Kumar Rajesh. S. Nongthombam Barun Kant Nishant Kumar Tewari Aditi Sinha Sushmita Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-20 2020-03-20 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1045 TO STUDY THE INCIDENCE OF PRIMARY CAESAREAN SECTION IN PRIMIGRAVIDA AND MULTIGRAVIDA <p>Background: Caesarean section is one of the commonly performed surgical procedures in obstetrics and is certainly one of the oldest operations in surgery. Methods-This is hospital based prospective study of comparing the primary caesarean section in primigravida and multigravida.</p> <p>Results: Out of 100 primigravida patients delivered, of it(66.00%) delivered normally and 34 (34.0%) delivered by primary LSCS. Out of 100 multigravida patients delivered and out of which 75 (75.00%) delivered noramally and 22 (22.00%) were primary LSCS.</p> <p>Conclusion: The rate of primary caesarean section in primigravida is higher than multigravida.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Primigravida , Multigravida, Caesarean section.</p> Sarika Gothwal R K Meena Rattiram Meena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-20 2020-03-20 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1049 TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF YOGA ON BLOOD SUGAR PROFILE IN DIABETICS TYPE-2 PATIENTS <p>Background: Yoga is a Sanskrit word meaning union. It is Hindu spiritual and self-discipline method for integrating the body, breath and mind. It is a tradition of health and spirituality that evolved in the Indian peninsula over a period of some 5000 years</p> <p>Methods: Prospective study was conducted on 100 &nbsp;type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 100 &nbsp;normal healthy persons. Cases were recruited from a yoga centre. Control subjects were selected from diabetic patients attending hospital. Alcoholic or smoker subjects were excluded.</p> <p>Results: The mean value of blood glucose level of subjects was 7.42±1.32% and that of controls was 6.12±1.42%.&nbsp; The difference between the mean value of HB1Ac level determined by unpaired&nbsp; ‘t’ test was statistically highly significant (p=&lt;0001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Yoga can be used as an alternate therapy to reduce the blood glucose level along with the drug therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Yoga, Diabetics, Drugs.</p> R K Meena Sarika Gothwal Rattiram Meena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-20 2020-03-20 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1050 TO STUDY AND EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF ORAL THEOPHYLLINE IN ADDITION TO OTHER CONSERVATIVE MEASURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF PDPH. <p>To provide analgesia in patients developing PDPH and to study the quality and efficacy of oral Theophylline as an addition to other conservative treatment used for PDPH.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Efficacy, Oral, Theophylline, PDPH.</p> Sangeeta Bansal Agrawal Richa Gupta Prerna Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-21 2020-03-21 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1051 A PROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON MRI EVALUATION OF INTERNAL DERANGEMENTS OF THE KNEE JOINT <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Internal derangements of knee joint constitute a major source of morbidity in patients attending orthopaedic outpatients department of our hospital. It includes a group of disorders due to disruption of normal functioning of ligaments and menisci of knee joint leading to persistent or intermittent signs and symptoms such as pain, instability, or abnormal mobility of the knee. MRI would be a noninvasive, nonoperator dependent effective modality for early detection of these pathologies and has very high negative predictive value.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The study was carried out over a period of one year from April 2018 to April 2019. Fifty patients with clinically suspected internal derangement of knee were included in this prospective study. They were evaluated with detailed clinical history and clinical examinations and were subsequently subjected to imaging of knee using 1.5 T HDxt 8 Channel GE MRI machine.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>ACL was the commonest ligament to be injured with partial tear being more common than complete tear. MCL was the commonest ligament to be torn in association with ACL. Indirect signs of ACL injury were evaluated and helped to corroborate the tears. Meniscal injury was common in medial meniscus and predominantly involved the posterior horn. In lateral meniscus anterior horn was involved more than posterior horn. In both the meniscus horizontal tear was the most common. Certain pattern of associations of injuries was found such as ACL tear with posterolateral corner injury.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Interpretation and Conclusion: </strong>MR is an excellent tool for evaluation of ligaments, menisci and osseous structures of knee joint. Various clinical tests and appropriate clinical history complements MR examination. Similarly MR imaging of knee complements therapeutic arthroscopies and would greatly reduce the need of diagnostic arthroscopies. Thus MR is a non-invasive, painless and morbidity-free modality for accurate preoperative assessment that is well accepted by patients.</p> Solanki Kunal G. Raval Udit K. Solanki Vipul V. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-23 2020-03-23 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1054 CLINICAL APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURED INSTRUMENTS USING ULTRASONICS AND THE INSTRUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM UNDER THE DENTAL OPERATING MICROSCOPE <p><strong>Background: </strong>Instrument separation has become a major concern in the endodontic practice today. In cases where the fractured fragment completely blocks the canal, the access of disinfecting irrigants to the root canal system is limited. Literature suggesting the guidelines on the management of broken instruments is scanty. This study was aimed to establish a preliminary guideline in the management of cases with instrument fracture using the Ultrasonic tips, the Instrument Retrieval System (IRS) and Instrument bypass under the Dental Operating Microscope (DOM).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>40 cases were selected with fractured instruments and categorized as follows-location coronal or apical to curvature- size of greater than or less than 5 mm. Patients were informed about the procedure and its complications, following which consent was taken. Management was planned in three stages. Instrument retrieval with the aid of Ultrasonics was performed under the DOM in stage 1. Retrieval using IRS was performed in stage 2. Instrument bypass was performed in stage 3. Success rate was compared using statistical analysis by the StatPac software.</p> <p><strong>Results and conclusion: </strong>Fractured fragments with a length of less than 5mm and straight line access was retrieved successfully under the DOM using the Ultrasonics in 87.5% cases. Retrieval of fragments greater than 5mm and with a straight line access was successful with the added use of the Instrument Retrieval system/ Instrument extractor in 71.4% cases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ultrasonic, Instrument Retrieval System, Dental Operating Microscope, instrument bypass, fractured instrument</p> <p><strong>Key Message: </strong>Instrument fracture in an endodontic practice is a stressful event. With the widespread use of rotary instruments, the incidence of instrument separation has increased. With increasing referral of such cases, management of these cases with a predictable outcome has become important in endodontic specialty. An attempt has been made to lay down guidelines regarding management of cases with fractured instruments.</p> Rohan Gupta Tanya Sharma NSC Charles RPS Bedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-23 2020-03-23 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1029 USE OF CORROSION CASTS OF RENAL VASCULATURE FOR UG TEACHING <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The internal three-dimensional structure of organs and patterns of blood vessels is complex and it is often difficult for medical students to visualize and interpret them. The corrosion cast technique is used to study the vascular patterns in kidney as it is one of the powerful tools with anatomical accuracy and durability.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Preparation of corrosion casts of kidney using CAB (cellulose acetyl butyrate) granules for greater understanding of the spatial relationship of renal vasculature &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong></p> <ul> <li>To accelerate knowledge acquisition</li> <li>To determine student’s perception to the utility of corrosion casts of kidney&nbsp; in UG teaching</li> </ul> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Corrosion cast technique involves injection of the cast material (CAB granules) dissolved in acetone into the renal vessels. Gradually, the volatile solvent evaporates and the solute solidifies inside the vessel forming solid permanent cast. The unwanted tissues are then washed away using corrosive agents like conc HCl resulting in three-dimensional representation of blood vessels.<strong> &nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The UG students were divided in 2 groups randomly having 50 students each. Half of the total participants received teaching lessons through a lecture discussing renal blood supply using corrosion casts while the rest with 2D images. The other aspects of teaching session, including content, teaching slides were kept identical in both batches. Crossing over was done.</p> <p><strong>Results &amp; Conclusion: </strong>Post session questionnaires were applied to assess knowledge acquisition and learner satisfaction.<strong>&nbsp; </strong>Feedback was taken of student’s perception on the utility of corrosion casts as an effective teaching – learning method. Analysis of feedback was done. Corrosion casts enhance the student’s skills in spatial visualisation of complex vascular relationships. This can be used for other topics as well.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> corrosion casts, kidney, feedback</p> Tripti Shrivastava B Subhash A Banerjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-23 2020-03-23 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1057 NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES AMONG RELIGIOUS LEADERS IN JAMAICA <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The World Health Organization indicated that 71 per cent of all deaths globally (41 million people) and 80 per cent of mortality in low-to-middle-income nations are accounted for by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). However, there is sparse information on the prevalence of NCDs among religious leaders.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To evaluate the nature of NCDs among religious SDA leaders in Central Jamaica, 2) determine the extent of NCDs among religious SDA leaders in Central Jamaica, 3) assess the healthcare-seeking behaviour and prevalence of ill-health experienced among religious SDA leaders who reported having a NCDs, and 4) determine the per cent of religious SDA leaders who reported having hypertension and diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Methods and materials</strong>: The current study employed a correlational cross-sectional design. The population for this research was leaders who serve in the Seventh-day Adventist churches in Central Jamaica (n=350). A standardized questionnaire was developed to collect data and evaluate the research objectives.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The most prevalent NCDs were hypertension (28.9 per cent), high cholesterol and arthritis (18.6 per cent, each), chronic respiratory (8.8 per cent), and diabetes (8.5 per cent). Seventy-two and two tenths per cent of those who reported having an NCD sought medical care compared to 84.5 per cent of those who did not report an NCD (χ<sup>2</sup>(df=1)=4.231, <em>P</em> = 0.042). Leaders with NCDs were less likely to report good health than those who did not report NCDs (χ<sup>2</sup>(df=1)=25.048, <em>P</em> &lt; 0.0001, ɸ= -0.352).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: NCDs among religious SDA leaders are showing worrying signs and these must be affecting their decision-making capabilities.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes mellitus, good health status, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), religious leaders, healthcare-seeking behaviour, hypertension, self-reported health status</p> Paul Andrew Bourne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1043 EVALUATING THE CHANGES IN THE SPATIOTEMPORAL PARAMETERS OF GAIT WITH TONE INHIBITING ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS IN CEREBRAL PALSY <p>Background: Tone inhibiting AFO can be there by an effective, non-invasive method of controlling deformity and reducing hypertonus of contracture musculature. This study explores the hypothesis that by reducing the instinct deforming reflexes, deformity can be corrected as well gait can be improved.</p> <p>Methods: Prospective study conducted on all patients with cerebral palsy admitted to the dept. of PMR, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, who fulfill eligibility criteria and have given written informed consent, was included and evaluated.</p> <p>Results: In our study phase duration increased in every phase of TUG test. During sit to stand mean change in phase duration was 0.245 <u>+</u> 1.012 (p=0.505), during mid turn mean change in phase duration was 0.583 <u>+</u> 2.998(p=.279), during end turning mean change was 0.04 <u>+</u> 2.24 (p=0.925) and during stand to sit phase mean change was 0.103 <u>+</u> 0.862 (p=0.505).</p> <p>Conclusion: Our study showed improvement in distance covered by patients with TIAFO which is statistically non significant through Six Minute Walk Test which exhibits the improvement in energy efficient walking.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cerebral palsy, TUG test, Six Minute Walk Test.</p> Nirbhay Singh Yadav Mrinal Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1062 AN INVITRO EVALUATION OF THE DISSOLUTION POTENTIAL OF VARIOUS BEVERAGES ON ENAMEL THROUGH ANALYSIS OF pH AND CALCIUM IONS RELEASED. <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp; Beverage consumption is considered as one of the important risk factors for dental erosion<strong>.</strong>The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the enamel dissolution potentials of commercially available beverages through pH analysis and quantification of calcium ions released.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:- </strong>Four commercially available beverages, Green tea (TETLEY LTD), Red bull energy drink (RAUCH FRUCHTSAFTE, GMBH&amp;CO OG, UAE), Real mixed fruit juice (real fruit power ltd, DABUR), Appy fizz (PARLE AGRO) were used to analyse pH and calcium ions released through two independent phases. 24 enamel specimens were prepared from 12 healthy human molars. pH analysis was done with pH meter and calcium analysis was measured by using colorimetry and spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis was carried out by using tests of descriptive statistics, paired t test for intra group comparisons and One way ANOVA with Post Hoc tukey test for intergroup comparisons.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mixed fruit juice had shown highest acidic potential while Green tea had shown lowest acidic potential.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Red Bull had shown highest dissolution potential while green tea had shown lowest dissolution potential.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dental erosion is influenced by the pH of the beverages and calcium dissolution of the tooth. Red bull has shown highest erosion potential. Even though green tea with an high acidic pH did not show any considerable erosion potential..</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Dental erosion, pH of beverages, dissolution potential of beverages</p> Sagurti. Anitha Rao Deepthi Angalakuditi Soonu . ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1065 STATUS OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV) AND HEPATITIS E VIRUS (HEV) INFECTION IN THE PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN JHALAWAR, RAJASTHAN <p>Viral hepatitis refers to a primary infection and inflammation of the liver by any of the heterogenous group of hepatitis virus types A,B,C,D and E.<sup>1</sup> The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis. There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic.<sup>2</sup></p> Adhunika Singh Yogendra Kumar Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1033 EVALUATION OF PAP SMEARS BY CONVENTIONAL CYTOLOGY AND CORRELATION WITH CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cervical cancer is considered preventable, as majority of cancers are preceded by a long-standing precancerous lesion. This lesion may exist in the non-invasive stage for years and shed abnormal cells that can be detected on cytological examination.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study was carried out with aim to evaluate cervical smears for epithelial abnormalities and study the relationship of cervical smear findings with clinical features like age, parity, vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, backache, postcoital bleeding, infertility, postmenopausal bleeding and also Correlate cervical smear findings with cervical biopsy. <strong>Material and methods: </strong>All the pap smears received from the gynecology department from 2013 to 2015 were included in the study. In each case, personal information and clinical history were recorded. Correlation with histopathological findings was done in cases where cervical biopsy was available.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the women was 31 years. Normal pap smear was reported in 8.33%. The most common finding reported was inflammatory pap smear.(75%) Highest incidence of premalignant lesion (LSIL) was noted in women with parity 5 and above. The most common presenting complaint was discharge per vaginum which was present in 54 (39.13%) cases.&nbsp; Of the total 60 biopsies, 45 were reported as chronic cervicitis and 11 as LSIL, 2 as HSIL and 2 were normal. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study establishes the importance of conventional cervical Pap smear test in cervical cancer screening for diagnosis of precancerous and cancerous lesions of cervix especially in India where majority of population is rural-based and belong to low socioeconomic group.</p> Shivani Panhotra Surinder K. Atri Kulbhushan Badyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1046 IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LAMININ-5 AND MYOFIBROBLASTS IN EPITHELIAL DYSPLASIA AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA <p><strong>Background: </strong>Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. The transformation of the normal epithelial cell into a tumor cell bestows upon them certain features at the cellular and molecular level which aids in its survival and proliferation. Invasion of the altered tumor cells through the basement membrane into the connective tissue stroma and their subsequent spread and metastasis is an important prognostic indicator. Laminin-5 is a protein associated with a migratory phenotype in epithelial neoplastic cells. Along with laminin, the stromal myofibroblasts play a significant role in tumor invasion, due to its ability to modify the extracellular matrix.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the role of laminin 5 and stromal myofibroblasts in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Paraffin-embedded archival samples of 25 normal, 30 oral epithelial dysplasia and 30 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were evaluated for laminin-5 and α- smooth muscle actin (SMA) using standard immunohistochemistry. Semi-quantitative assessment of the expression of laminin and alpha SMA was done in all the study samples. The area of staining and the staining intensity was evaluated in order to determine the staining index which were then statistically analyzed between the three groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All the cases of laminin showed cytoplasmic staining in the basal cell layer and basement membrane. Expression of laminin was observed in the basal cell layer of normal and epithelial dysplasia study group and mainly around the tumor islands in OSCC group. α- SMA was seen with increasing intensity with increasing grade of the disease. Comparison of laminin expression between the three groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the staining index from normal to epithelial dysplasia to OSCC (p &lt; 0.01). Statistical comparison of α-SMA in between the three groups using Kruskal- Wallis test showed a significant increase in the expression of α-SMA from normal to epithelial dysplasia to OSCC (p &lt; 0.01)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Decreased laminin expression in the basement membrane and increased expression of α-SMA favors tumor invasion, establishment of an invasive phenotype of neoplastic cells and a permissive environment for tumor invasion.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Epithelial dysplasia, Oral cancer, Laminin, Alpha- Smooth muscle actin, Immunohistochemistry, Myofibroblasts</p> Preeti Ahankare Gokul Sridharan Divyesh Wankhedkar Sangeeta Patankar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1064 ROLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DENTAL SCIENCES: A REVIEW <p>Nano technology is the multi disciplinary science and technology, which has emerged as new science exploiting specific phenomena and direct manipulation of materials on nanoscale. Nanotechnology deals with the physical, chemical, and biological properties of structures and their parts at nanoscale dimensions. It's established on the concept by creating functional structures by controlling corpuscles and molecules on a one-by-one basis by different physical and chemical synthesis methods. Developments in materials science and, nano biotechnology is especially forestalled to provide elevates in dental sciences and initiations in oral health-related diagnostic and therapeutical methods.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nano Science, dentistry, Nanocomposite, Nanorobots, Nanomaterials.</p> Ramakoteswara Rao N Kranthi kiran Reddy E Leena Gahane SV Ranganayakulu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-23 2020-03-23 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1055 DECLARATION OF EPIDEMIC PUBLIC HEALTH WITH NOVEL CORONAVIRUS <p>Coronaviruses (CoV) are broad enveloped RNA viruses in humans and animals are mostly correlated with enteric and respiratory problems. Within the last decades, incidents of high death rate triggered by the spread of CoV from animals to humans have occurred. Certain pathogen city of CoV is known species-dependent as with the extent of infection; Complications typically appear in closely associated human hosts. Epidemiologists assume that the SARS virus arose in bats (natural reservoirs hosts) that were transferred to persons in Wuhan, China. Presently, the available diagnostic tests are aimed at the traditional early detection of the causes of pneumonia, promote disease prevention efforts and collaborate with research laboratories that can conduct pan coronavirus detection or controlled sequencing. No vaccine is sufficient to protect toward coronaviruses. Also there is no clear treatment for corona virus disease. Patients take comprehensive medication in clinics and typically heal on their own after several times. A vaccine can take up to 45 months to develop. Let’s stay safe during this period of time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Coronaviruses, Spreading, bats, diagnostic, vaccine</p> Rafid A. Abdulkareem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-23 2020-03-23 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1056 DENTAL CONSIDERATIONS AMIDST COVID-19 SCARE <p>A Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) identified in Wuhan city of china capable of causing life threatening respiratory illness declared as a pandemic by WHO and has become a global fear among the community and healthcare professionals in 2020. 2019-nCoV is a positive stranded RNA virus having an origin from bats targets the host cells via the enzyme&nbsp;Angiotensin Converting enzyme 2(ACE2), which is most abundant in the&nbsp;type II alveolar cells&nbsp;of the lungs. This virus has usual incubation period of approximate 5 days and typically spread from one person to another via&nbsp;respiratory droplets&nbsp;produced during coughing and sneezing. Spread of this virus in the community has been reported through direct transmission route such as cough, droplet transmission, aerosols, salivary route, ocular and through the contact spread. As the dental practice compels dentists to come in face to face contact with the patients and aerosols during certain dental procedures leading to the heightened risk of 2019-nCoV transmission from infected patients. We hereby make an attempt to discuss 2019-nCoV infection spread in the community and among dentist, including precautions and considerations pertaining to the practice of dentistry amidst 2019-nCoV scare.</p> Nitish Mathur Sanjeev Tyagi Vartul Dwivedi Anu Narang Parimala Tyagi Kartik S Nath ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1058 EFFICACY OF A NEW DEVICE FOR PASSIVE CONTINUOUS PATELLAR MOBILIZATION. <p>Patellafemoral joint diseases are commonly treated from physiotherapists. Patellar mobilisations can be performed either manually, but automated, passive continuous mobilisation devices are popular and frequently used in the clinical practice. The Patello device is a new developed product, but its effectiveness has not been verified yet. The purpose of this pilot-study was to investigate the effects of this passive continuous motion device (CPMD) on patellar cranial-caudal translation.</p> <p>Nine healthy participants (mean age: 36.0±10.74 yrs, mean height: 172.7±8.1 cm, mean mass: 72.4±8.6 kg) volunteered for this study. The participants’ right knee was investigated and placed at a flexion angle of 45° inside the device. The Patella bone was fixed to the device with two pincers to ensure full contact. A total of 50 repetitions, with a constant mobilisation speed, was conducted and the degree of translation was assessed after 1, 10, 20, 30 and 50 repetitions.</p> <p>The results of this pilot-study indicate, that the CPMD was effective to translate the patella within the trochlear groove after 1 (mean translation: 0.819cm, p&lt;0.001), up to 50 repetitions (mean translation: 0.774 cm, p&lt;0.001) compared to baseline. No significant differences (p&gt;0.05) were observed between the repetitions.</p> <p>In conclusion, the CPMD proved to be effective to mobilize the patellar bone in a healthy population. Further studies should investigate the possible effects of passive continuous mobilisations in a clinical setting.</p> Erich Hohenauer, PhD Rahel Stoop, MSc Agathe Koller, PhD Joeri Predig Matthias Fenzl, PhD Carlina Deflorin, MSc Ron Clijsen, PhD ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.971 MELIOIDOSIS PRESENTING AS PAROTID ABSCESS IN AN ADULT - A CASE REPORT <p><em>Burkholderia pseudomallei,</em> a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium casuses melioidosis, a tropical disease which is more commonly reported these days. Melioidosis can present as visceral abscess, pneumonia, localized ulcers, musculoskeletal and neurological infections, even as full blown sepsis. Melioidosis presenting as parotid abscess is commonly reported among pediatric population, however in adults it is a rare entity with only very few cases being reported. There are very limited studies that have described melioidosis with abscess in unusual sites apart from liver and splenic abscess. Here we present a case of a diabetic male with left sided parotid abscess and on microbiological evaluation found to have melioidosis which was successfully treated with combined surgical and medical treatment.</p> Jagadeesh Chandrasekaran Mathi Manoj Kumar Ravichandran Shobana Paulraj Venkatakarthikeyan Chokkalingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.987 MUCINOUS ADENOCARCINOMA OF GALL BLADDER: A RARE ENTITY IN GALL BALDDER ADENOCARCINOMA <p>Gall bladder carcinoma is the most common type of tumor of the biliary tract and adenocarcinoma is the major histopathological subtype. Mucinous variant is a rare subtype and mucinous carcinoma accompanied with signet ring is extremely rare. When mucinous component exceeds 90% of the tumor, it is labeled as pure mucinous carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry helps to distinguish primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of gall bladder from pseudo myxoma peritonei from appendiceal neoplasm. Mucinous carcinoma is CK 7 positive and CK20 negative. We report a case of mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the fundus of the gall bladder.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Mucinous carcinoma, Gall bladder, Adenocarcinoma, Metastatic deposits</p> Sushil Kumar Shukla Rohini Garg Dushyant Gaur Anshika Arora Anuradha Kusum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1035 INDIVIDUALIZED HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF CONTACT DERMATITIS: A CASE REPORT <p>Contact dermatitis is a type of skin eruption. It is caused by chemical or physical substance comes in contact with skin that causes allergic reaction. Contact dermatitis can be caused by different compound in home or work.&nbsp; It is chronic or continuous, non-contagious in nature. Here, a18 year’s old girl presented with a popular eruption over flexor aspect of wrist joint and over both ear lobes over last 3 to 4 years. It was a diagnosed case of contact dermatitis. She was successfully treated by individualized Homoeopathic treatment with single medicine Calcarea Carb over 4 to 5 months. She initially did not show stable improvement on homoeopathic medicine selected on the basis of symptoms. On changing the medicine considering mental symptoms and physical general, she gradually showed good improvement and reached remission by 3 months. Remission maintained without any recurrence over the next 2 years. It shows positive role of Homoeopathic treatment in contact dermatitis in a young woman.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Homoeopathy, Dermatitis, Contact, Treatment.</p> Indrajeet Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-20 2020-03-20 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1044 EFFECTIVENESS OF DIODE LASER IN PERIODONTAL THERAPY: A CLINICAL STUDY <p>Now-a-days, almost every specialty area of dentistry is utilizing the powers of laser energy for therapeutic purposes. The diode laser is the most popular soft tissue laser and commonly used in dentistry. A diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode is used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. The 810 nm devices predominate in dentistry, whereas 810 nm is specific for hemoglobin absorption. Diode lasers have many advantages over traditional surgical and therapeutic techniques in addition to providing bloodless surgical and postsurgical course with minimal swelling, scarring, and others things noted are less pain, excellent hemostasis, rapid wound healing and bactericidal action with the minimally invasive procedure. In the present paper, we discuss various uses of the diode laser such as frenectomy, implant surgery, vestibular deepening, and gingival enlargement procedures in dentistry.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diode laser; frenectomy, Implant Surgery, Vestibular Deepning, Gingival enlargement</p> Abhishek Gautam Nidhi . Kumar Manish Amar Kumar Samir Jain Ritesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 4 3 10.32553/ijmbs.v4i3.1066