International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Medical and Biomedical Studies.</p> <p>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;is an academic journal which aims to publish complete and reliable source of information in the field of medical research providing the fundamental knowledge for further research.&nbsp;<em>IJMBS</em>&nbsp;commits to publish the results of researches in medical practice, risk factors and preventive medicine, safety and effectiveness of treatments, and diagnostic tools that are used to treat any disease. Our journal aims to attract an international audience of Medicine professionals enthusiastic to the most updated and substantial medical progress through the full spectrum of medical research.</p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical Studies||&nbsp; Biomedical Studies ||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Anesthesia,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences,&nbsp;Pharmacokinetics,&nbsp;Molecular Drug Design, Phytochemistry, Toxicology, Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,&nbsp;Agriculture, Herbal Medicine, Orthopaedics and all major disciplines of&nbsp;Medical and Biomedical Studies.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif; text-align: justify;">Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 'lucida sans unicode', 'lucida grande', sans-serif;">Other features:</strong> DIDS and DOI: Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <hr> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to <strong><span style="color: #008000;"></span></strong></span></span></p> <hr> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>&nbsp;</p> <p class="caption" style="text-align: center;"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" width="60" height="21" border="0"></a>International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies&nbsp;(IJMBS)<span style="line-height: 1.3em;">&nbsp;</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">by </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Articles</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;"> is licensed under a </span><a style="line-height: 1.3em;" title="Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">.</span></p> (IJMBS) (IJMBS) Fri, 08 May 2020 11:40:55 -0400 OJS 60 A METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF BRAIN, BRAIN STEM WITH SPINAL CORD AS ONE UNIT FROM HUMAN CADAVERS FOR ANATOMICAL STUDY AND MUSEUM PURPOSES <p>After successful embalming of the 05 human adult cadavers, removals of brain, brain stem with spinal cord were done as a single unit. The removal of bilateral laminectomy of vertebrae helps in viewing of spinal cord with its coverings and spinal nerve roots, dorsal root ganglion and cauda equina. It is followed by removal of vault of skull, squamous part of occipital bone and posterior arch of atlas, helps in viewing of brain, brain stem along with dural sheath and venous sinuses. This approach helps in total removal of brain, brain stem and spinal cord with its covering with large venous sinuses remaining intact however small venous sinuses are sacrificed in this process. The specimen thus obtained can be used for anatomical study and museum display.</p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 200%;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Removal of brain, brain stem, spinal cord, anatomical study.</p> Subhash Bhukya, Merlin R Thomas, Alok P Acharya, A Manitombi Devi, A banerjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 May 2020 11:45:04 -0400 IMPACT OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM ON FIRST MBBS STUDENTS IN RENAL PHYSIOLOGY. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Teaching by “flipped classroom” approach is evolving in medical science where students attempt significant pre-class preparations, while classroom time is utilized to achieve deeper levels of knowledge of the relevant topics.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To implement flipped classroom teaching method and to comprehend, analyse and evaluate the impact of this method in first MBBS students.</p> <p><strong>Settings and Design:</strong> 100 first MBBS students of Ashwini Rural Medical College, Solapur. It’s a cross-sectional observational study</p> <p><strong>Methods and Material:</strong> Study group comprised of 100 students, who were divided into two groups. Group-1 was exposed to flipped classroom (FCR) teaching method and Group-2 was subjected to traditional classroom teaching by same faculty. Study material like power-point presentations, links for the video lectures and page numbers of standard textbooks of the topics to be taught were shared with students belonging to FCR group. Pre-test was taken from both the groups before beginning of study. Classroom time was utilised for making students achieve deeper knowledge and understanding by self-directed learning methods for FCR group while non-FCR group was taught by didactic lecture sessions. Evaluation was done by post-test. Students belonging to FCR group were asked to give feedback about FCR teaching method.</p> <p><strong>Statistical analysis</strong>: Comparison of scores of pre and post-test was done between both the groups by using t-test. (p-value &lt; 0.05-significant).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average score comparison of pre-test between group-1 and group-2 was not significant which depicts no intellectual difference between both groups whereas average score comparison of post-test between group-1 and group-2 was highly significant. The average marks scored in post-test were highly significant than the marks so scored in pre-test for group-1, whereas in group-2, the average marks scored in post-test were only significant than the marks scored in pre-test.</p> <p>Students strongly agreed that they were able to understand the topic effectively and FCR was an interesting experience for learning.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The present study resulted in improved student’s performance in FCR group hence it gives us an insight that FCR would be a potential and greater educational tool for facilitators to help students reach deeper understanding of topics along with relevant exposure to different ways of pedagogy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Flipped Class room, Pedagogy, Active learning, Renal Physiology</p> Vandana S. Daulatabad, Prafull A. Kamble ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 May 2020 12:17:11 -0400 RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CRESTAL BONE RESORPTION DURING HEALING & LOADING PERIOD IN IMPLANT SUPPORTED OVERDENTURE BY PLACING IMPLANT THROUGH FLAP TECHNIQUE- IN VIVO STUDY <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to detect the effect of flap technique on crestal bone resorption during healing and loading period in implant supported overdentures.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> A total of 8 patients, 5 male and 3 female, ranging from 50 to 70 years of age, having completely edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches were selected for the study the whole study was conducted in 4 phases. In the 1<sup>st</sup> phase Clinical Diagnosis, Treatment Planning &amp; Denture Fabrication was done. The selected subjects will be diagnosed and treatment planning for new denture fabrication was done. In the 2<sup>nd</sup> phase the denture insertion was done and if required occlusal correction was be performed. After initial recall visit, patient was recalled again after one week of denture usage. In this visit 1<sup>st</sup> stage of implant surgery was conducted. Dental implant in the mid symphyseal region was placed following all the surgical protocols. Immediately after surgery first IOPA with RVG was taken. After the surgery the denture was relieved at the surgical site and patient was asked to use the same denture. Subsequently after 4 weeks and after 12 weeks of healing the second and third IOPA with RVG was taken. The computer software was used for measuring the bone level. After 3 months of Osseointegration period in phase 3, the loading of the implant was done by incorporating O ring attachment. Again after 4 weeks and after 12 weeks of loading the fourth and fifth IOPA with RVG was taken. The magnification error was checked. The data obtained was saved using Paint software used in Microsoft 8.1. The data so obtained for measuring the bone levels with the help of computer software (RVG 5100) was tabled and statistical analysis was done.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean rate of crestal bone loss with time was more during first month (0.35mm) then it decreased in 3<sup>rd</sup> month (0.51mm) and further decreased during 4<sup>th </sup>month (0.59mm) and 6<sup>th</sup> month (0.70mm) follow up period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The concept of single implant supported overdentures provides another option for completely edentulous elderly patients with severely resorbed mandibular ridge &amp; with economic constraints in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dental implants, Overdenture, Residual Alveolar Ridge, Crestal Bone loss, Intraoral Digital Radiography (RVG 5100).</p> Barun Kant, Arunoday Kumar, Tanya Nandkeoliar, Pankaj Malhotra, Aditi Sinha, Nishant Kumar Tewari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 May 2020 07:32:39 -0400 DO BIPOLAR PATIENTS LACK MIND READING; AN ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THROUGH PICTURE SEQUENCING TASK <p>Background: This paper reports the performance of ICD-10 diagnosed Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) patients on a well recognised measure of theory of mind (ToM) that commonly elicits&nbsp; group related differences in schizophrenia research.</p> <p>Aims: (1) To assess Theory of mind in patients of Bipolar Affective Disorder.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (2)&nbsp; To examine effect of mood on Theory of Mind.</p> <p>Method: Three groups were formed namely Control, BPAD (M) and BPAD (D). Each group was socio-demographically suitably matched and had 30 participants. Active symptomatology was assessed by using YMRS and MADRS in BPAD(M) and BPAD(D) cases respectively. Theory of mind was calculated using Landon and Clotheart (1999) Picture Sequencing Task.</p> <p>Results: Relative to controls, bipolar patients performed significantly worse on the ToM relevant false belief script in picture sequencing task but not on other types of task stories. No significant difference was observed in the ToM performance between the phase of bipolarity.</p> <p>Conclusion: The results support previous evidence of ToM deficit in BPAD and indicate a potential endophenotypic overlap in the phenomenology of both Schizophrenia and BPAD.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Theory of Mind, YMRS, MADRS, Picture Sequence Task</p> Anant Kumar Rathi, Sandeep Sharma, Kamal Kumar Verma, Divya Bishnoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 May 2020 02:00:48 -0400 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE FIGURE OF 8 SUTURING REINFORCED WITH FREE PARIETAL PERITONEAL PATCH VERSUS DIRECT SUTURING WITH OMENTAL PLUG/FALCIFORM PLUG IN PATIENTS WITH GASTRO-INTESTINAL PERFORATION. <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This present study was to compare the figure of 8 suturing reinforced with free parietal peritoneal patch versus direct suturing with omental plug/falciform plug in patients with gastro-intestinal perforation.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A detail history, clinical examinations and relevant investigations were performed to all patients. All patients were anaesthetized: After painting and draping the operation site, right paramedian incision was made. Peritoneum was opened. Whole GIT and intra-abdominal organs were examined properly. Edges of perorated site were debrided. Then, the perforation firstly was stitched by a Figure of 8 stitch with vicryl 3-0 and then a free parietal peritoneal patch taken from lateral abdominal wall was applied and held in position with interrupted/continuous seromuscular sutures. Then, central tucking was also be done to keep the patch firmly fixed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 26 software. One sample t test was applied. Mean and standard deviation were observed. P value was taken less than or equal to 0.05 for significant differences.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Reinforcement of free parietal peritoneal patch over figure of 8 suturing is effective method for the closure of gastrointestinal tract perforations, with early evidence of gastrointestinal motility with oral intake allowed on an average 4<sup>th</sup> - 5<sup>th</sup> postoperative day was significant statistical difference with regards to complications like anastomotic leakage. Hence, the figure of 8 stitch reinforced with free parietal peritoneal patch is a simple and easy procedure with less hospital stay which does not require significant expertise and can even be performed in very short time by a trained general surgeon in a seriously ill patient in an emergency situation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Gastrointestinal perforation, Figure of 8 stitch, parietal peritoneal patch, omental plug,&nbsp; direct suturing</p> Shwetabh Pradhan, Abhinav Bisht, Abhijit Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 May 2020 09:05:50 -0400 STUDY OF CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND ACID PHOSPHATASE IN PRE-AND POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>More than 75 million individuals overall experience the ill effects of osteoporosis of which 80 % for example 44 million are postmenopausal ladies. Osteoporosis is second just to cardiovascular disease as a main medicinal services issue, as per the World Health Organization. Around the world, the lifetime hazard for ladies to have an osteoporotic break is 30 – 40%. Menopauseis one of the most significant physiological occasions; it is identified with the suspension of ovarian capacity and the finish of conceptive cycle. The occurrence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal ladies keeps on expanding with continuously maturing populaces. Pre-menopause refers to a ladies' regenerative or rich life, from the main menstrual period to the last. Post-menopause is characterized as the time after menopause, in any event one year without a period. Osteoporosisis a dynamic infection which prompts the exhaustion in the bone structure with loss of bone mineral thickness (BMD) expanding the hazard factor of breaks throughout the years. High danger of creating osteoporosis is described by low BMD and shows a disintegration of the smaller scale engineering with the BMD is the consequence of a harmony between bone resorption because of osteoclasts and bone arrangement because of osteoblasts, during an on-going renovating process.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Study of Calcium, Phosphorus, Acid Phosphatase and BMD T score in Pre-and Post-Menopausal Women.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The present study includes total 100 subjects that include</p> <p>50 pre-menopausal women (age 35 to 45 years) and 50 post -menopause women (age 46 to 60 years). &nbsp;Blood samples were collected from the subjects were obtained for Calcium, Phosphorus and Acid Phosphatase from Medicine /Orthopaedics/ Obstetrics and Gynaecology Wards.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Menopause is one of the most significant physiological occasions: it is identified with the end of ovarian capacity and the finish of conceptive cycle. The rate of osteoporosis in postmenopausal ladies keeps on expanding with continuously maturing populaces. Pre-menopause alludes to a lady's regenerative or prolific life, from the principal menstrual period to the last. Post-menopause is the time after menopause, in any event one year without a period. Beginning stage of menopause builds hazard for some postmenopausal wellbeing inconveniences, for example, osteoporosis, ischemic ailment, and ovarian malignancy, though later menopause is a hazard factor for endometrial and bosom disease.</p> <p><strong>Abbreviation:</strong> Menopause, Osteoporosis, BMD T score, Calcium, Phosphorus, Acid phosphatase.</p> Gangaram Bhadarge, Badade ZG, Rahul Kadam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 May 2020 07:57:13 -0400 CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY FOR MOTOR RECOVERY IN CHRONIC STROKE PATIENT IN RURAL INDIA <p>A possible explanation for the substantial remaining motor deficits in stroke patients might be the occurrence of learned nonuse, a phenomenon first described by Taub. Stroke patients who initially attempt to use the affected extremity find themselves unable to do so because the process of spontaneous recovery of function has not yet proceeded sufficiently far. This results in the experience of failure or punishment for attempts to move the extremity and in positive reinforcement for compensatory movements by the unaffected extremity-a learning process that might be supported by the teaching of compensatory activity during rehabilitation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>CIMT, Motor recovery, Stroke patients</p> Anchit Gugnani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 May 2020 08:15:53 -0400 A STUDY ON THE CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF CHILDREN WITH SCORPION STING IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL JHALAWAR, RAJASTHAN <p>Background: Scorpion sting envenomation is a life threatening emergency in tropical and subtropical countries with a potential of severe and often fatal clinical manifestations among children.</p> <p>Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care centre in Jhalawar (Rajasthan) over a period from 1 April 2019 to 30 Sept. 2019. Total 26 children admitted with a history of scorpion sting were included in this study.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results: With regard to severity, 7 (26.92%), 15 (57.69%), and 4 (15.38%) patients were classified into classes I, II and III, respectively. The duration of hospitalization ranged from 1 to 5 days with mean hospitalization stay of 2.36 ±1.2 days. The duration was longer in younger children and the patients who reported to the hospital very late.&nbsp; All patients were discharged after complete recovery.</p> <p>Conclusion: Scorpion sting envenomation is a common medical emergency among children. It is common in rural areas and among boys. The site of sting was predominantly in the lower limbs and during nights of summer season.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Scorpion sting, Children, Rural.</p> Kalu Ram Meena, Abhishek Bansal, K. C. Dagal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 May 2020 11:25:59 -0400 HYPONATREMIA IN CHILDREN OF 2 MONTHS TO 5 YEARS OF AGE WITH PNEUMONIA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH OUTCOME <p>Background: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance observed in children with pneumonia. Presence of hyponatremia may increase the morbidity and mortality in pneumonia. The purpose of the study was to find the frequency of hyponatremia in 2 months to 5 years old children hospitalized with pneumonia and to correlate the hyponatremia with the severity of pneumonia.</p> <p>Methods: This prospective observational study involved 100 children of 2 months to 5 years, admitted in tertiary care hospital with pneumonia. Subjects were classified as pneumonia and severe pneumonia according to WHO criteria. Relevant demographic, clinical data and outcome of the patients were noted. Serum sodium was analyzed and was correlated with severity of pneumonia.</p> <p>Results: Out of 100 children included in this study, 64 were boys and 36 were girls. Hyponatremia was found in 43.0% of children with pneumonia. Mild hyponatremia was the commonest and seen in 26 children. Mortality was more in children with hyponatremia compared to normonatremia.</p> <p>Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance found in pneumonia and more commonly seen in severe pneumonia. Hyponatremia is associated with increased mortality.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Children, Hyponatremia, Mortality, Pneumonia.</p> Kapil Kumar, Anita Devi, Rakes Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 May 2020 12:19:53 -0400 A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY FOR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THROMBOCYTOPENIA AND CULTURE POSITIVE NEONATAL BACTERIAL SEPSIS <p>Background: Changes in Platelet parameters like Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width are helpful in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis but these indices have not been extensively studied in neonatal sepsis. Hence, the present study is undertaken to evaluate Platelet count and platelet indices in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.</p> <p>Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 4 months i.e from December 2019 to March 2020 in neonatal intensive care unit of Jhalawar Medical College &amp; Attached Hospitals, Jhalawar. During the study period 154 consecutive neonates (both inborn and out born), with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis along with either positive culture (confirmed neonatal sepsis ) or other laboratory findings suggestive of bacterial and fungal infection in absence of positive cultures (probable sepsis), were included after written informed consent from parents.</p> <p>Results: Out of total (154), 81.8%, 76% and 67.5% of cases had thrombocytopenia, raised MPV (&gt;10.8) and raised PDW respectively. As compared to Non-sepsis group, MPV values were raised in more cases of Sepsis proven group (88%) and the difference was statistically significant with P value of 0.011. PDW values were also more increased in Sepsis proven group compared to Non-sepsis group.</p> <p>Conclusion: Platelet count and platelet indices, which are easily available hematological parameters in remote &amp; resource poor areas of our country, should be taken into consideration for suspected cases of neonatal sepsis so that prompt treatment can be given, and morbidity and mortality can be reduced.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sepsis, CRP, MPV, PDW.</p> Anita Devi, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Kapil Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 May 2020 12:37:26 -0400 A STUDY ON CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF SNAKE ENVENOMATION IN CHILDREN AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL JHALAWAR, RAJASTHAN <p>Background: Snake bite is generally considered to be a rural problem and has been linked with environmental and occupational condition is a neglected public health problem.</p> <p>Method: This study was conducted in children admitted with snake bite in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in the year 2019. Their demographic details, site of bite, arrival time, 20Minutes Whole Blood Clotting time, clinical signs and symptoms, complications and outcome were measured.</p> <p>Results: The male: female ratio was 1.33:1. Peak age group affected was 6 to 12 years old children. Lower limbs were commonly bitten. 88.1% of children arrived in the hospital between 0 and 6 hours after the bite. Pain and swelling at the site of bite were the most common symptom of envenomation. There were only two deaths during the study period. Conclusion: Snake bite is a life threatening emergency. Identification, timely diagnosis and early administration of anti-snake venom will certainly aid to curb mortality in snake bite.</p> Abhishek Bansal, Kalu Ram Meena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 May 2020 12:50:14 -0400 PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN (AGE 1 MONTH TO 5 YEARS) WITH FEVER ADMITTED IN JHALAWAR MEDICAL COLLEGE, JHALAWAR <p>Background: The present study is undertaken to estimate the prevalence of urinary tract infection in febrile preschool children (1 month to 5 years of age) in febrile children visiting at tertiary care centre of Jhalawar, Rajasthan</p> <p>Methods: It was a cross-sectional, prospective, observational, non interventional study, carried out to analyse the prevalence of urinary tract infection in febrile preschool children (1 month to 5 years of age) in febrile children visiting medical college, Hospital Jhalawar. The study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics, between Dec. 2019 &nbsp;to &nbsp;March 2020. The study was approved by Ethics Committee. &nbsp;</p> <p>Results: During the study period, we have screened total 1379 preschool children (under 5 years of age) with fever. Out of this total 1379 febrile children, 86 children found to be culture positive cases for UTI (CP-UTI). The prevalence of culture positive cases for UTI in this study was 6.23%. In the prospect of age, 24 (27.91%) children were found to be infant and 62(72.09%) children were found to be of age between 1 years to 5 years.</p> <p>Conclusion: UTIs in preschool children are often having vague and variable symptoms, often fever is the only symptoms. An untreated UTI can lead to subsequent damage and impairment of renal structure and function, it is very important to diagnose and treat UTI in preschool children.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Urinary tract infection, E.coli, Fever.</p> Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Kapil Kumar, Anita Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 May 2020 13:11:23 -0400 ASSESSMENT OF HEARING THRESHOLDS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS BASED ON GENDER AND USE OF HEADPHONES. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The sounds we are exposed to everyday are usually at a safe level and do not affect our hearing. However, development of latest technology and frequent use of headphones has increased the proximity of sound to the ear. Adolescents and young adults who are commonly exposed to loud music/noise are at a greater risk of developing hearing impairment. Hence the adverse effects of chronic exposure to loud sounds need to be assessed.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine hearing thresholds in students (Males/Females) at various frequencies and the changes in hearing thresholds associated with prolonged exposure (&gt;90mins) to sound.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in 148 first year MBBS students.</p> <p>Materials used - ALPS Advanced Digital Audiometer AD2100, bone oscillator and headphones.</p> <p>Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0 with p&lt;0.05 as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>1) Males have lower hearing thresholds than females except at higher frequencies where females have equal or better hearing thresholds than males.</p> <p>2) The mean exposure to headphones was 115.432±92.1348 mins.</p> <p>Subjects with &gt;90mins exposure had better hearing thresholds at lower frequencies but at higher frequencies showed increase in hearing thresholds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Lower hearing thresholds in females at higher frequencies could be evolutionary as females are more sensitive to high pitch sounds like baby’s cry. Prolonged exposure to loud sound damages hair cells at base of cochlea responsible for picking up high frequency sounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hearing thresholds, noise, adolescents.</p> Mahesh D Kamble, Celia V Fernandes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 May 2020 01:52:35 -0400 STUDY OF CORRELATION BETWEEN MICROALBUMINURIA AND ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE <p>Background: Microalbuminuria is the excretion of the albumin in minute quantity which is not detected with normal dipstick method. It is estimated to be the excretion of 30 - 300 micrograms of albumin in urine and has been called as microalbuminuria. Ischaemic stroke is defined as the acute onset in neurological deficit following sudden occlusion of blood supply to the brain tissue due to any cause.&nbsp;</p> <p>Aim: •&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To study the correlation between microalbuminuria and other risk factors for acute ischemic stroke</p> <p>Methods: As per the minimum sample sizing a total of 104 patients of Acute ischaemic stroke were studied. Among these patients, 47 patients had the presence of microalbuminuria, and the rest of the 57 had no Microalbuminuria. Since for comparison purposes, the entire study group was divided into two groups: Group A: Patients with microalbuminuria; Group B: Patients without microalbuminuria.</p> <p>Results: Microalbuminuria was present in most 45.19% of the patients out of the 104 patients studied. Presence of MA was significantly correlated to the Glasgow coma scale for assessing the prognostic significance. Lower the GCS the prevalence and the values of the MA were more. There was no significant correlation between the Age and the presence of MA. There was no significant gender discrepancy with the presence of MA. There was no significant correlation between the presence of ECG changes and the presence and absence of MA. No significant correlation was withdrawn from the presence of smoking history and the presence of MA. Also, there was no significant correlations established between the lipid parameters and MA.</p> <p>Conclusion: This study may serve to add the data that is already available in pertaining to the significant risk factors and other parameters. Its importance in the other systemic diseases and its behaviour has to be further studied, and its prognostic significance has to be established. In our study, we found out that the presence was around 45.19% of the entire study group. We could also infer that the Presence of MA may also serve as an important prognostic indicator for the neurological outcomes of the disease.</p> Avinash Solanke, R B Dhore ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 May 2020 04:58:07 -0400 IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NONFERMENTATIVE GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, JAIPUR. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Non fermentative gram negative bacilli that were considered to be contaminants in the past have now emerged as important health care associated pathogens.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was undertaken to identify and characterize Nonfermenters isolated from various clinical samples.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: Present study was conducted in the department of Microbiology, National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) Medical College and hospital, Jaipur from July 2013 to July 2014. A total 150 strains of Nonfermenters were isolated from 1200 various non repetitive clinical samples. The samples were processed and Non fermentative gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) identified as far as possible up to species level as per standard protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, 12.50% of incidence / isolation rate of Nonfermenters in various clinical samples was found. Out of 150 strains of Nonfermenter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate 134 (89.33%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii&nbsp; 16 (10.67%). 89 (59.33%) NFGNB were isolated from males and 61 (40.67%) were from females. They were mainly isolated from age group 21-30 Years. Higher rate of isolation of NFGNB were 85 (56.67%) from IPD and 38 (25.33%) from ICU patients. Among all clinical samples Pus and Wound Discharge yield maximum isolates of NFGNB i.e. 54 (36%) followed by Sputum 39 (26.0%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> NFGNB should not be ignored as mere contaminant but correlate clinically for its pathogenic potential and identified using standard protocol so as to institute appropriate and timely antibiotic coverage</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Identification, Nonfermenter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter</p> Kirti Hemwani, P.S. Nirwan, Preeti Shrivastava, Abhiraj Ramchandani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 May 2020 05:19:46 -0400 FETO–MATERNAL OUTCOME IN CASES OF ACCIDENTAL HAEMORRHAGE <p>Background: Accidental haemorrhage is a grave obstetrical emergency that refers to bleeding at the decidual-placental interface which causes placental detachment over 28 weeks of gestation age and prior to delivery of the fetus. WHO reported 2.1% maternal mortality rates due to Abruptio placenta, and the fetal perinatal mortality rate was 15% while its incidence was 0.65%. Abruption may be “revealed,” in which case blood tracks between the membranes and the decidua, and escapes through the cervix into the vagina. The less common “concealed” abruption occurs when blood accumulates behind the placenta, with no obvious external bleeding.</p> <p>Aim: The study aimed to understand the incidence and predictors of adverse outcomes of Accidental hemorrhage in our setting and Knowledge from this study will help in determining the outcomes and designing management strategies improving Fetal maternal outcomes.</p> <p>Methods: It was an observational prospective hospital-based study design with a follow-up component. All pregnant women diagnosed to have abruption placenta from 28 weeks of gestation and above; all babies delivered by mothers with abruptio placenta.</p> <p>Result: The majority of cases 86(86%) belonged to the reproductive age group of 21-30 years. 60(60%) cases were multipara within 2-4 range of parity and 5 (5%) patients were grand multiparous. Thus the present study would tend to support multiparity as a risk factor. In the present study, higher frequency of unbooked cases 62 (62%) was seen as they were referrals, most of them had no antenatal checkups and only presented in hospital as obstetric emergencies. Majority of the cases came with complaint of bleeding per vaginum, as blood escapes out the cervix after travelling between membranes. 78% of the neonates were born alive. 70% of the patients had an APGAR score ranging from 5-10. The neonatal weights ranged from 1.0 -4.0 kg, the distribution pattern shows 48 (48%) neonates in the range 1500-2499 gms, 14 (14%) neonates in the range 1000-1499 gms and 38 (38%) neonates in the range 2500-3999 gms.</p> <p>Conclusion: In light of the current study, it was found that the incidence of Accidental haemorrhage was 0.4%. The study also identified that 60% of the cases were multigravida having parity from 2-4. Furthermore, the study found that 22% of cases were stillbirth; there was 8 neonatal death contributing to increased perinatal mortality of 30%.</p> Charmi Pawani, Pooja Ghori, Snehal Kukadiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 May 2020 07:56:45 -0400 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE MARGINAL ADAPTATION OF FOUR DIFFERENT COMPOSITE RESINS WITH OR WITHOUT PREHEATING – AN IN VITRO STUDY <p><strong>Background:</strong> Resin composites as direct posterior restorative material was associated with the polymerization contraction and microleakage. Different methods have been introduced to overcome these drawbacks by increasing the degree of monomer conversion and to minimize the polymerization shrinkage. Composite preheating is an innovative method to improve the handling and physical properties. So this study was done to evaluate the effect of prepolymerization warming of different composites on the marginal adaptation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This <em>in vitro</em> study was conducted on 80 extracted human maxillary premolars. Class II cavities on the proximal surface were prepared with the dimensions of 4 mm buccolingual width, 2 mm axial depth, and gingival margin at the cementoenamel junction. They were divided into four groups of 20 teeth each and were restored accordingly: Group I – Bulkfill nanohybrid; Group II – Nanofill; Group III – Ormocer; Group IV – microhybrid composites. Each group was further sub - divided into subgroups of 10 teeth, according to the preheated composites and room temperature composites used. After restorative procedures, samples were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction through the centre of the restoration and analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope at 200x magnification and marginal gap width was measured in three areas at the axial wall using Image Processing and Analysis in Java (ImageJ 1.5 2a) software.</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis:</strong> Data was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 Software for Windows. The comparisons of four different composite materials with two subgroups were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test. The level of significance was kept at&nbsp;&nbsp; p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Preheating results in more gap formation with the bulk fill nanohybrid and Ormocer showed higher MQ4 scores than the room temperature composites. No statistically significant results were found. But the percentage of gap formation was comparatively higher in preheated composite group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Within the limitations of the present study, it could be concluded that preheated composites showed poor internal marginal adaptation with increased frequency of gap formation.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Internal marginal adaptation, Ormocer, Filtek nanofill, Microhybrid, Tetric bulk fill</p> Mohanapriya R, Rajesh Gopal. V, A. Arvind Kumar, Benin Paulaian, Joselin ., . Jai Kolden ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 May 2020 08:50:58 -0400 TO STUDY AGE, SEX INCIDENCE OF VARIOUS SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS IN BIKANER REGION <p>Background: To determine the Incidence of various salivary gland tumours according to age and sex in Bikaner region</p> <p>Methods: This is a retrospective and prospective study on salivary gland neoplasm a histopathological study in relation to age, sex and site over a period of 5 years, 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective at the department of pathology, Sardar Patel Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Bikaner.</p> <p>Results: &nbsp;No case was found in age groups 0-20 years while 4 patients were found in age group 21-30 years and out of them 2 each were female and male while 5 patients were found in age group 31-40 and out of them 3 were females and 2 were males. In age group 41-50, only 4 patients were found and they all were males. In age group 51-60 years, maximum number of cases (n=6) were found and out of them 3 each were female and male.</p> <p>Conclusion: In Bikaner zone benign neoplasm is predominant in female and malignant predominant in male.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Benign, Malignant, Age, Sex, Salivary gland.</p> Saroj Ola, Nikita Manoj, Manoj Kumar Meena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 May 2020 12:00:02 -0400 TO STUDY ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF NONFERMENTATIVE GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, JAIPUR. <p>Background: Nonfermentative gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) frequently considered as commensals or contaminants but the pathogenic potential of nonfermenters has been proved beyond doubt. They are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials.</p> <p>Aim: This study was undertaken to identify the nonfermenters isolated from various clinical samples and to know their Antibiotic sensitivity pattern.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 150 strains of Nonfermenters isolated from 1200 various non repetitive clinical samples received in Department of Microbiology, NIMS Jaipur. Nonfermenters were identified using a standard protocol and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed with the help of the modified Bauer disc diffusion method.</p> <p>Results: Out of 150 nonfermenters isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate 134 (89.33%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii 16 (10.67%). Among all clinical samples Pus and Wound Discharge yield maximum isolates of NFGNB i.e. 54 (36%) % followed by sputum (39.0%). Most sensitive drug against NFGNB was Polymyxin-B (100%) followed by Imipenem (86 %) and Amikacin (71.33 %).</p> <p>Conclusion: Nonfermenters have a great potential to survive in a hospital environment so implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and strict infection control practices will be required to prevent or slow down their emergence and spread.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Nonfermenters,&nbsp; Polymyxin-B, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter.</p> Kirti Hemwani, P. S. Nirwan, Preeti Shrivastava, Abhiraj Ramchandani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 24 May 2020 01:08:58 -0400 MECONIUM STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID AND ITS NEONATAL OUTCOME IN A RURAL TERTIARY CARE CENTER NEAR MATHURA <p>The presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a sign of fetal compromise. It is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. MSAF is frequently associated with high cesarean rate, prolonged labour,low APGAR scores, increased rate of birth asphyxia; increased NICU admission, meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal death. The aim of this prospective study is to correlate the effect of meconium stained amniotic fluid on neonatal outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Meconium stained amniotic fluid, Neonatal morbidity and mortality, NICU.</p> Nitin Gyaras Puria, Krishna Pada Dutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 24 May 2020 01:25:28 -0400 TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY OF MIDAZOLAM IN DOSE OF 0.5 MG/KG AND 0.75 MG/KG FOR SEDATION. <p>Study was conducted on 60 patients of both sexes taken for various surgical procedures taking from 30 to 90 minutes at Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior.</p> <p>We found that none of the children in the 0.75 mg/kg dose group cried compared with 4 children (20%) in the c group and one child (5%) in the 0. 5 mg/kg dose group. The percentage of children who appeared uncomfortable (study recorded that they were crying or complaining) were the highest in the control dose group (45%).&nbsp; Only 25% of the children in the 0.5 mg/kg dose group and 10% of the children in the 0.75 mg/kg dose group appeared uncomfortable.&nbsp; Thus more children were comfortable (study recorded they were sleepy or quite but awake) in the 0.75 mg/kg dose group (90%) compared with the 0. 5 mg/kg dose group (75%) and the control group (55%). This difference was statistically significant between the control group and the group that received the 0.75mg/kg dose.</p> <p>The number of children who had desirable sedation was similar in the 0.75 mg/kg dose groups. Induction of general anaesthesia was poor for 25% the children in the group that received the 0.5 mg/kg dose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Efficacy, Midazolam, Sedation &amp; Anaesthesia.</p> Kunwar Singh Thakur, Utsav Sharma, Preeti Goyal, Bhanu Choudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 24 May 2020 03:53:13 -0400 TO COMPARE THE NEED FOR INTRAVENOUS VASOPRESSOR (RESCUE) THERAPY FOR TREATING SPINAL ANAESTHESIA INDUCED HYPOTENSION AMONG PHENYLEPHRINE, EPHEDRINE AND CONTROL GROUPS. <p>The study was undertaken in the Department of Anaesthesiology, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior. The study included 90 patients (age 20-35 years) undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.</p> <p>Maximum hypotension was observed in control group. As compared to the control group, incidence of hypotension was significantly less in phenylephrine group as well as ephedrine group. Also comparing ephedrine and phenylephrine groups, although incidence of hypotension was low in phenylephrine group but it was not found to be significant.</p> <p>The incidence of hypotension was significantly low in phenylephrine group (p=0.000) and ephedrine group (p=0.005). But when phenylephrine and ephedrine groups were compared, although incidence of hypotension was low in phenylephrine group but it was not found to be significant (p=0.869).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Intravenous Vasopressor, Spinal Anaesthesia, Hypotension &amp; Phenylephrine.</p> Utsav Sharma, Kunwar Singh Thakur, Preeti Goyal, Bhanu Choudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 24 May 2020 04:11:21 -0400 CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER BASED PORT FOR MULTI-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY; TECHNIQUES AND COMPLICATIONS <p>Background:&nbsp; the utility of percutaneous Chemo port devices in the administration of multi-dose systemic chemotherapy in malignancy patients for long term therapy. It is a small port that is implanted under the skin in subcutaneous tissue to allow easy and repeated access to the bloodstream. To avoid thrombophlebitis and extravasation of drugs</p> <p>Objective: To study the utility of percutaneous Chemo port devices in the administration of multi-dose systemic chemotherapy in malignancy patients.</p> <p>Methods:&nbsp;&nbsp; this was a prospective study. The study was done in the department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery SKIMS soura Srinagar Kashmir .from October 2018 to January 2020.We included 50 patients who were advised for Chemotherapy by the Medical Oncology department .The gender distribution being 38 females and 12 males. The mean age group was 43 and 54 years respectively for females and males. &nbsp;A single type of port was used, constructed of titanium and silicone. Puncture was done ultrasound guided. All patients had baseline investigation and dopplar for upper limbs and to rule out central venous stenosis.</p> <p>Results: We included&nbsp; total 50&nbsp; patients, 43 (87%) patients completed their chemotherapy regime including .one&nbsp; (2%) patient who developed ipsilateral pneumothorax which was managed by intercostal tube placement. 2 (4%) patients developed severe wound infection that prompted the instantaneous removal of chemoport device followed by irrigation of the infected pocket and antibiotics. 1 patient developed catheter block which required flushes of heparinised saline. 2 patients required re-orientation of port device for port tilting.One (2%) patient had refractory arrhythmias that did not settle with drugs and hence warranted port removal. None patients had spontaneous extravasation of the port through the skin.</p> <p>Exclusion criteria: Pediatric patients age less than 18 years. Patients having Central venous stenosis. Patients having deep venous thrombosis of bilateral upper limbs.</p> <p>Conculsion: Central venous based catheter device is a very good means of delivering chemotherapeutic agents in patients of malignancy who have to receive a multi-dose drug therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Chemotherapy, device implantation, utility, complications and management</em></p> Farooq Ahmad Ganie, Mohd Yaqoob Khan, Ghulam Nabi Lone ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 May 2020 11:39:33 -0400 A STUDY OF SERUM FERRITIN LEVEL IN PATIENTS OF STROKE AS A PROGNOSTIC MARKER <p>Background: Stroke/cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the second most common cause of mortality after coronary artery disease (CAD). Amongst all neurological diseases, stroke ranks first in frequency and importance. In India, the scenario is no different, its incidence and prevalence are on a steady rise. To evaluate the concentration of serum ferritin in patients of acute stroke as a prognostic marker.</p> <p>Methods: This was a hospital based observational and cross sectional study conducted on 60 cases of acute stroke as per seed article having minimum difference of mean (f ferritin level) 365 and 145.43 for 80% power and 0.05 alpha error.</p> <p>Results: Out of 34 cases of haemorrhagic cases 13 cases mortality was observed while 14 cases had deteriorated outcome and 15 cases improved. Mean serum ferritin of dead, deteriorate and improved haemorrhagic cases was 1169±114.28, 723.07±88.07 and 107.43±26.80. Serum ferritin level was abnormal [raised] in all 22[36%] death cases and 24[40%] cases who had deteriorate.</p> <p>Conclusion: Elevated serum ferritin is strongly associated with early neurological deterioration in patients of stroke and is a definite poor prognostic marker of acute stroke [ ischemic or haemorrhagic] an elevated serum ferritin (A marker of iron stores) herald more intensive management protocols and care for the patient as it can predict early neurological deterioration. Iron chelation therapy in acute stroke seems to be a strong theoretical possibility and further studies are required to investigate its role in treatment of stroke.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Stroke, Prognostic Marker, Elevated serum ferritin</p> Daulat Singh Chauhan, Mahendra Kumar Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 May 2020 12:52:37 -0400 EVALUATION OF CHLAMYDIA IN INFERTILE COUPLES <p>Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection, having deleterious effect on fertility in both men and women. The aim of this study is to assess the couple for chlamydia infection. Sixty infertile couples, without any assessment or treatment for infertility earlier were taken up for study. Endo cervical swab of the wife and a sperm swab from the semen sample given for analysis by the husband were analysed by NAAT PCR technique. 22 couples are chlamydia positive; in 21 the wife, in 13 the husband were positive; One man was positive for chlamydia, his wife being negative; Eight women were positive, but their husbands were negative for chlamydia.</p> <p>Sperm swab from the semen collected for semen analysis is an easy, practical way of testing the man for chlamydia. When more than one third of the couples are positive for chlamydia, it is logical that, screening for chlamydia be included in the infertility assessment protocol.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chlamydia; Infertility; NAAT; Semen swab</p> G. Ambujam, Alla Satyanarayana Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 May 2020 12:17:19 -0400 TO STUDY THYROID CYTOLOGY BY CONVENTIONAL METHOD AND APPLYING BETHESDA SYSTEM TO SAME SMEARS. <p>Method: The thyroid cytology smears reported at the Department of Pathology Index medical College over a two year period from May 2015 to June 2017 and a prospective thyroid FNAC smears from Sep 2017 to Aug 2019 were studied at the Department of Pathology Index Medical College.</p> <p>The conventional and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology were followed for reporting. A comparison of old conventional reporting system and Bethesda system were then analyzed. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Result: In Bethesda System None of the patients in both the group showed Inadequate diagnosis which was seen in the retrospective group using conventional system. Bethesda System has revealed that out of 81 patients with Benign Lesion, 41 (50.6%) were in retrospective group and 40 (49.4%) were in prospective group. Malignant was present in 2 (40%) and 3 (60%) patients in Retrospective and prospective group. Similarly out of 4 patients with Follicular Neoplasm, 3 (75%) and 1 (25%) were in retrospective and prospective group. However the distribution was comparable between both the groups.</p> <p>Conclusion: Adapting the Bethesda system of reporting has led to a high to sensitivity, specificity and high negative predictive values. Use of Bethesda systems helps in the prognosis, management and minimizes the unnecessary surgical procedures of thyroid swelling.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Thyroid, Cytology, Bethesda &amp; Smears.</p> Krishan Kumar Sharma, Ashik Mullik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 May 2020 12:48:59 -0400 SIGNIFICANCE OF PLACENTAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN PRETERM/TERM BIRTH <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study is cross-sectional, observational and comparative study, at Index Medical College, Hospital &amp; Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh from July 2017 to July 2019 with sample size 100 placentae.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The placenta received was evaluated blinded of maternal pregnancy outcome. The pattern of morphology was evaluated both qualitatively (type of lesion) and quantitatively (number of lesions).</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>In Present study 79% of the deliveries were term deliveries and 21% were preterm deliveries<strong>. </strong>On placental macroscopy, placenta weight was significantly low among the neonates of preterm deliveries (370.00±60.49) as compared to term deliveries (440.89±55.22). Preterm placenta had higher number of abnormal placental lesion compared to term pregnancies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The uteroplacental insufficiency defined as placental infarct, fibrosis of chorionic villi, thickening of blood vessels, and poor vascularity of chorionic villi. Placental histopathological lesions are strongly associated with maternal under perfusion and uteroplacental insufficiency. These are the reasons for preterm birth. Thus, knowledge of the etiological factor can be use to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortility.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Placenta, Term &amp; Preterm.</p> Monika Kushwaha, Sanjeev Narang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 May 2020 13:00:11 -0400 COMPARISON OF THE FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF REATTACHED TOOTH FRAGMENT VERSUS COMPOSITE CORE BUILD-UP USING THREE DIFFERENT POST SYSTEMS IN ENDODONTICALLY TREATED ANTERIORS – AN IN VITRO STUDY. <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Parapost, Everstick and Ribbond post systems.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Root canal therapy was performed in 40 maxillary anteriors. The coronal portion of the teeth were sectioned at the junction of coronal and middle third of the crown and they were divided into four groups [n=10] .Group I served as a positive control. In group II, III and IV Parapost, Everstick and Ribbond were used respectively to restore the tooth. In group II the sectioned coronal fragment was reattached and in group III and IV core build up was done using composite. Specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine and the resistance to fracture was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis:</strong> Datas were analysed using One Way ANOVA and Dunnett test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean fracture resistance was as follows: Control – 393.0 N, Parapost – 238.0 N, Ribbond – 134.0 N, Everstick - 222N. The fracture strength of Parapost with reattached fracture fragment showed statistically significant fracture strength values when compared with Ribbond and Everstick where composite was used as a core build up material</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;Fracture resistance, Reattachment, Everstick, Ribbond, Parapost</p> Thendral S, Rajesh Gopal V, Benin Paulaian Paulaian, Sudharsana S, Jaikolden K ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 May 2020 11:20:29 -0400