TO DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY (OSTEOPENIA AND OSTEOPOROSIS) IN INDIAN PATIENTS WITH CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER AWAITING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AS PER CURRENTLY USED HOLOGIC DXA DATABASE
Keywords:Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Low Bone Mineral Density, Liver Cirrhosis
AbstractBackground: Abnormalities in the bone metabolism observed in chronic liver disease are referred to as hepatic osteodystrophy. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are each part of this condition. Both conditions have a significant impact on morbidity, causing fractures that may result in chronic pain, long-lasting immobility, and deformity. Prevalence of fracture in patients with liver transplantation ranges from 15% - 65%. A high rate of fracturing is seen within the initial 1–2 years after transplantation. Aim: To determine the prevalence of low bone mineral density (osteopenia and osteoporosis) in Indian patients with cirrhosis of liver awaiting liver transplantation as per currently used Hologic DXA database Methods: This was a prospective observational study done at the department of gastroenterology and hepatology, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai from April 2011 to March 2013. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria underwent detailed history taking, physical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. One hundred patients were selected for the scope of the study. Results: Sixty-eight per cent of patients were in the age group of 45 to 65 years. The mean age ± SD of the study subjects was 51.2 ± 9.7 years. The mean age for male patients was 50.5 ± 10.1 years, and for females was 54 ± 7.3 years. Cirrhosis was due to alcohol in 36% of the patients, viral hepatitis in 28% (HBV in 10% and HCV in 18%) patients. 42% were in Child’s class B, and the remaining 58% were in Child’s class C. MELD score was less than 20 in 62% patients. One third was diabetic; one third gave the history of backache. History of smoking was present in one fifth (20%) patients, and a history of fracture (most of them were traumatic) was present in 13% of patients. By using Hologic DXA database at the lumbar spine, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 44% and 38 % patients respectively.
At the femoral neck, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 45% and 9% of patients. By using ICMR database at the lumbar spine, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 38% and 17% patients respectively. Similarly, at the femoral neck, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 34% and 5%. By using the Hologic DXA database, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 42% and 40 % patients. By using ICMR database, osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 43% and 19% patients respectively.Conclusion: In light of the above results, the present study revealed a high prevalence of low bone mineral density (osteopenia and osteoporosis) in Indian patients with cirrhosis of liver awaiting liver transplantation. The lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site in hepatic osteodystrophy.
Keywords: Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Low Bone Mineral Density, Liver Cirrhosis
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