CLINICAL STUDY OF RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS
Keywords:Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, complications
Aim: To study the relationship between severity of diabetic retinopathy (PDR or NPDR) and systemic complications of diabetes mellitus such as Neuropathy, Nephropathy or Cardiovascular manifestation as hypertension.
Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study of 100 patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. Such patients were recruited as a part of the study and further examined for any other systemic abnormality as neuropathy, nephropathy or hypertension.
Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. P value < 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: Male: Female ratio of presence of diabetic retinopathy was 2.13: 1. The rate of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was 1.47 % in persons who had diabetes for less than 5 years to 7.35 % in persons who had diabetes more than 15 years.
In our study, it was seen that nephropathy was present in 35.71 % cases with PDR as compared to 8.93% of cases with Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).
Conclusion: Our study showed that there is a significant correlation between severity of retinopathy and duration in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.
Maximum number of patients with Diabetes mellitus having cardiovascular involvement, had hypertension (68%).In patients suffering from neuropathy as a complication of DM, maximum number of patients had diabetic foot (56%).It was seen that the severity of diabetic retinopathy had some association with presence of nephropathy.
Also it can be postulated that patients with severe NPDR and PDR have high risk of developing nephropathy than patients suffering with mild and moderate NPDR.
Hence it can be recommended that all patients of diabetes mellitus suffering from clinically significant neuropathy, nephropathy or hypertension as a complication of diabetes should always be screened for presence of retinopathy.
Further studies with larger sample size are to be conducted to further look into this association.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, complications